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Olga Boudker is interested in how cells move materials across their membranes using transporter proteins. Boudker and her team aim to define the molecular mechanisms that underlie these transporter “mini-machines,” which use energy created in the cell to pump nutrients, neurotransmitters, waste, and drugs in or out of the cells. They decipher the structural features that define the rate at which these machines work and determine how they are regulated in the cells. They also are interested in the evolution of transporters – how they have adapted to the changes of cellular environments and diversified their functional capabilities.