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Jean-Laurent Casanova is interested in identifying monogenic and digenic disorders that selectively compromise immunity to a single infection in otherwise healthy children and adults. Casanova and his team have identified single-gene inborn errors of immunity that selectively underlie one of a variety of viral, bacterial, and fungal infections, including influenza, tuberculosis, and candidiasis. The team also recently studied COVID-19, a potentially life-threatening viral disease. Revealing such monogenic holes in protective immunity has important clinical implications, in terms of diagnosis and treatment, and has important biological significance, by delineating the essential and redundant functions of human genes in host defense.