Paul Taylor has pioneered work in the field of biological phase transitions and their role in normal cell biology and disease. Taylor and his team focus on phase separation, a strategy whereby cells organize their contents into discrete, membraneless compartments. They seek to define the mechanisms by which phase separation leads to consistent, faithful assembly of diverse and distinct cellular structures, and how this process may be perturbed in neurodegenerative disease. The team’s approach derives insights from the neurology clinic, including newly identified disease-associated mutations, and fuses them with fundamental studies of neuronal biology. This work has potential to inform the development of therapeutics for ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases.