Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease that affects hemoglobin. A single nucleotide change in the hemoglobin gene causes an amino acid substitution in the hemoglobin protein from glutamic acid to valine. The resulting proteins stick together to form long fibers and distort the shape of the red blood cells.
AP Biology (2015)
1.B.1.a; 3.A.1.a,b; 3.C.1.a,b; 3.C.2.a; 4.A.1.a,b; 4.B.1.a
IB Biology (2016)
1.1, 2.3, 2.4, 2.6, 2.7, 3.2, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 10.1
NGSS (April 2013)
HS-LS1-1 (LS1.A), HS-LS1-4 (LS1.B), HS-LS3-2 (LS3.B), HS-LS4-1 (LS4.A)