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  • Cystic Fibrosis Mechanism and Treatment

    Cystic Fibrosis Mechanism and Treatment

    Animations

    (2 min 31 sec) Mutations in the CFTR gene, which encodes a transmembrane ion channel, cause mucus buildup in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis.

  • How We Get Our Skin Color

    How We Get Our Skin Color

    Animations

    (3 min 32 sec) This engaging animation shows how human skin cells produce the pigment melanin, which gives skin its color. 

  • Seeing Single Molecules Move

    Seeing Single Molecules Move

    Animations

    (1 min 40 sec) Single-molecule analysis using super-resolution microscopes reveals that transcription factors are not usually found bound to their binding sites on DNA.

  • Coral Bleaching

    Coral Bleaching

    Animations

    (3 min 48 sec) Zoom into a coral reef and discover photosynthetic algae inside the coral’s cells. Reef-building corals rely on these symbionts for their survival.

  • Cancer and Cell Fate in the Intestinal Epithelium

    Cancer and Cell Fate in the Intestinal Epithelium

    Animations

    (2 min 17 sec) Disrupting the normal processes of differentiation and maturation of the intestinal epithelial cells can lead to cancer. Also available in Spanish.

  • Autism and the Structure and Function of Synapses

    Autism and the Structure and Function of Synapses

    Animations

    (2 min 3 sec) Genes associated with autism affect the structure and function of neuronal synapses.

  • Development of the Cerebral Cortex

    Development of the Cerebral Cortex

    Animations

    (1 min 43 sec) Most of the neurons of the cerebral cortex arise from progenitor cells that undergo repeated cell division.

  • Anole Lizards: An Example of Speciation

    Anole Lizards: An Example of Speciation

    Animations

    (2 min 38 sec) This animation features the anole lizards as an example of how a single species can split and multiply into many different species with distinct traits.

  • Gleevec-Resistant Form of Kinase BCR-ABL

    Gleevec-Resistant Form of Kinase BCR-ABL

    Animations

    (2 min 14 sec) Mutations in the BCR-ABL gene can cause resistance to Gleevec, but another drug, dasatinib, can be used instead.

  • Gleevec Inhibits Cancer-Causing Kinase BCR-ABL

    Gleevec Inhibits Cancer-Causing Kinase BCR-ABL

    Animations

    (3 min 31 sec) The drug Gleevec binds to and inactivates BCR-ABL, a mutant kinase that causes chronic myeloid leukemia. 

  • Malaria: Mosquito Host

    Malaria: Mosquito Host

    Animations

    (3 min 59 sec) A mosquito becomes infected with malaria when it sucks the blood from an infected human. Once inside the mosquito, the parasites reproduce in the gut and accumulate in the salivary glands, ready to infect another human host with the next bite.

  • Malaria: Human Host

    Malaria: Human Host

    Animations

    (4 min 18 sec) When a malaria-carrying mosquito bites a human host, the malaria parasite enters the bloodstream, multiplies in the liver cells, and is then released back into the bloodstream, where it infects and destroys red blood cells.

  • Cloning an Army of T Cells for Immune Defense

    Cloning an Army of T Cells for Immune Defense

    Animations

    (4 min 21 sec) View the animation to see how one type of immune cell—the helper T cell—interprets a message presented at the surface of the cell membrane. The message is an antigen, a protein fragment taken from an invading microbe. A series of events unfolds that results in the production of many clones of the helper T cell. These identical T cells can serve as a brigade forming an essential communication network to activate B cells, which make antibodies that will specifically attack the activating antigen.

  • The Geologic Carbon Cycle

    The Geologic Carbon Cycle

    Animations

    (6 min 20 sec) CO2 emitted by volcanoes into the atmosphere is removed by a series of chemical reactions related to rock weathering.

  • Greenhouse Effect

    Greenhouse Effect

    Animations

    (2 min 14 sec) Sunlight that warms Earth is re-emitted as infrared radiation, which is absorbed by greenhouse gases and causes further warming.

  • Lactose Digestion in Infants

    Lactose Digestion in Infants

    Animations

    (53 sec) The lactase enzyme is produced in the small intestine of infants. It digests lactose by breaking it into glucose and galactose.

  • Natural Selection of Lactose Tolerance

    Natural Selection of Lactose Tolerance

    Animations

    (46 sec) Environmental and cultural factors can affect whether a new human mutation becomes common in a population.

  • Regulation of Eukaryotic DNA Transcription

    Regulation of Eukaryotic DNA Transcription

    Animations

    (2 min 5 sec) General transcription factors, activators, and repressors interact to regulate the transcription of eukaryotic DNA into RNA.

  • Dengue Virus Enters a Cell

    Dengue Virus Enters a Cell

    Animations

    (1 min 33 sec) Infection begins when the dengue virus uses receptors on an immune cell's surface to gain entry and release its genome.

  • Dengue Virus Life Cycle

    Dengue Virus Life Cycle

    Animations

    (4 min 12 sec) Dengue virus has sophisticated mechanisms for entering a cell, for replicating its RNA genome, and for translating proteins.

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