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  • Cloning an Army of T Cells for Immune Defense

    Cloning an Army of T Cells for Immune Defense


    (4 min 21 sec) View the animation to see how one type of immune cell—the helper T cell—interprets a message presented at the surface of the cell membrane. The message is an antigen, a protein fragment taken from an invading microbe. A series of events unfolds that results in the production of many clones of the helper T cell. These identical T cells can serve as a brigade forming an essential communication network to activate B cells, which make antibodies that will specifically attack the activating antigen.

  • Cells of the Immune System

    Cells of the Immune System

    Click & Learn

    An overview of the immune system, concentrating on the roles played by B and T lymphocytes, and the antigen-presentation system.

  • CTL killing a target cell

    CTL killing a target cell


    (1 min 17 sec) Video microscopy of a cytotoxic T lymphocyte in action.

  • Antigen presentation and CTL

    Antigen presentation and CTL


    (2 min 34 sec) How a cell infected by a virus signals cytotoxic T lymphocytes to kill the cell before the virus replicates and spreads.

  • Protease inhibitors

    Protease inhibitors


    (1 min 6 sec) Protease inhibitors prevent maturation of viral proteins inside HIV particles.

  • Immunology Virtual Lab

    Immunology Virtual Lab

    Virtual Lab

    This virtual lab teaches the procedures of performing an ELISA test to determine whether a particular antibody is present in a patient's blood sample.