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  • Why Two Heads?

    Why Two Heads?

    Phenomenal Images

    Students explore images of planarians regenerating body parts as phenomena to explore cell division and differentiation.

  • Identifying the Key Genes for Regeneration

    Identifying the Key Genes for Regeneration

    Scientists at Work

    (9 min 55 sec) This video describes how scientists silence different genes in regenerating planaria to study the process of regeneration at the molecular level.

  • Genetic Mutations and Disease Interactive

    Genetic Mutations and Disease Interactive

    Click & Learn

    This interactive focuses on the roles of germline and somatic cell mutations in human disease. It supports the 2013 Holiday Lectures on Science, Medicine in the Genomic Era.

  • Slug Power

    Slug Power

    Phenomenal Images

    Students explore photos of a sea slug and chloroplasts as phenomena to explore photosynthesis concepts.

  • How We Get Our Skin Color Interactive

    How We Get Our Skin Color Interactive

    Interactive Videos

    (3 min 32 sec) This interactive animation about the biology of skin color provides stop points at which students can further explore the material through additional text and illustrations, videos, questions, and simple interactive widgets.

  • How We Get Our Skin Color

    How We Get Our Skin Color

    Animations

    (3 min 32 sec) This engaging animation shows how human skin cells produce the pigment melanin, which gives skin its color. 

  • Synchronized Division

    Synchronized Division

    Phenomenal Images

    Students explore a photo of early embryonic cells as a phenomenon to learn about cell division and development.

  • Cancer and Cell Fate in the Intestinal Epithelium

    Cancer and Cell Fate in the Intestinal Epithelium

    Animations

    (2 min 17 sec) This animation shows how disrupting cellular processes in the intestines can lead to colon cancer.

  • Autism and the Structure and Function of Synapses

    Autism and the Structure and Function of Synapses

    Animations

    (2 min 3 sec) Genes associated with autism affect the structure and function of neuronal synapses.

  • Development of the Cerebral Cortex

    Development of the Cerebral Cortex

    Animations

    (1 min 43 sec) Most of the neurons of the cerebral cortex arise from progenitor cells that undergo repeated cell division.

  • Genomic Medicine, Autism, and Cancer

    Genomic Medicine, Autism, and Cancer

    Science Talks

    (37 min 26 sec) A student discussion with the lecturers of the 2013 Holiday Lectures on Science.

  • From Cancer Genomics to Cancer Drugs

    From Cancer Genomics to Cancer Drugs

    Science Talks

    (58 min 46 sec) Genetic data from a large number of tumor types reveal commonly mutated genes and uncover connections between different types of cancer.

  • Medicine in the Genomic Era

    Medicine in the Genomic Era

    Science Talks

    In the 2013 Holiday Lectures on Science, leading medical researchers explain how advances in genomics are revolutionizing their work, leading to a better understanding of disease and to improved treatments.

  • Cloning an Army of T Cells for Immune Defense

    Cloning an Army of T Cells for Immune Defense

    Animations

    (4 min 21 sec) View the animation to see how one type of immune cell—the helper T cell—interprets a message presented at the surface of the cell membrane. The message is an antigen, a protein fragment taken from an invading microbe. A series of events unfolds that results in the production of many clones of the helper T cell. These identical T cells can serve as a brigade forming an essential communication network to activate B cells, which make antibodies that will specifically attack the activating antigen.

  • Dengue Virus Enters a Cell

    Dengue Virus Enters a Cell

    Animations

    (1 min 33 sec) Infection begins when the dengue virus uses receptors on an immune cell's surface to gain entry and release its genome.

  • Symbiotic Bioluminescence

    Symbiotic Bioluminescence

    Click & Learn

    Explore the biology of the symbiotic relationship between the Hawaiian Bobtail squid and bioluminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri.

  • Prialt blocks motor synapse in fish

    Prialt blocks motor synapse in fish

    Animations

    (2 min 31 sec) Prialt, a drug derived from cone snail venom, paralyzes fish by blocking calcium channels at a motor synapse.

  • Electrical Activity of Neurons

    Electrical Activity of Neurons

    Click & Learn

    Measuring neuronal activity, generating action potentials, and recording the firing of individual neurons.

  • Demo: SHH concentration and eye position

    Demo: SHH concentration and eye position

    Clips

    (1 min 22 sec) A reduction in the level of sonic hedgehog (SHH) gene expression can lead to cyclopia.

  • Growth cones in action

    Growth cones in action

    Clips

    (34 sec) The growth cones of two neurons sense and interact with one another.

  • Demo: Electrical measurement of muscle activity

    Demo: Electrical measurement of muscle activity

    Clips

    (2 min 10 sec) A live recording of muscle activity from Dr. Jessell's biceps and triceps muscles.

  • Molecular Mechanism of Synaptic Function

    Molecular Mechanism of Synaptic Function

    Animations

    (1 min 9 sec) This animation shows how neurons send and receive signals to communicate with one another at contact points called synapses.

  • Signal molecules trigger transcription factors

    Signal molecules trigger transcription factors

    Animations

    (2 min 4 sec) Varying concentrations of a signaling molecule activate different transcription factors and determine cell fate.

  • CTL killing a target cell

    CTL killing a target cell

    Clips

    (1 min 17 sec) Video microscopy of a cytotoxic T lymphocyte in action.

  • HIV life cycle

    HIV life cycle

    Animations

    (4 min 52 sec) How HIV infects a cell and replicates itself using reverse transcriptase and the host's cellular machinery.

  • Antigen presentation and CTL

    Antigen presentation and CTL

    Animations

    (2 min 34 sec) How a cell infected by a virus signals cytotoxic T lymphocytes to kill the cell before the virus replicates and spreads.

  • Classroom Activities: Planaria Regeneration Activity

    Classroom Activities: Planaria Regeneration Activity

    Labs & Demos

    This activity uses the planaria's property for regeneration and compares how long it takes for planaria cut in different places to regenerate a head. 

  • Tissue Regeneration in Animals

    Tissue Regeneration in Animals

    Click & Learn

    An overview and comparison of different regenerative capabilities in many different organisms.

  • Planarian Regeneration and Stem Cells

    Planarian Regeneration and Stem Cells

    Scientists at Work

    (11 min 47 sec) A mini-documentary discussing the remarkable regenerative capabilities of the planarian, and how HHMI researcher Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado uses them to study the biology of stem cells.

  • Human Embryonic Development

    Human Embryonic Development

    Animations

    (2 min 18 sec) Human embryonic development depends on stem cells. During the course of development, cells divide, migrate, and specialize. Early in development, a group of cells called the inner cell mass (ICM) forms. These cells are able to produce all the tissues of the body. Later in development, during gastrulation, the three germ layers form, and most cells become more restricted in the types of cells that they can produce.

  • Differentiation and the Fate of Cells

    Differentiation and the Fate of Cells

    Animations

    (1 min 29 sec) As a human embryo develops, its cells become progressively restricted in the types of specialized cells that they can produce. Inner cell mass (ICM) cells of the blastocyst can make any type of body cell. Gastrula-stage cells can give rise to the cells of a given germ layer. Later, cells become even more restricted. For example, the pancreatic bud of the endoderm layer can only make the cells of the pancreas.

  • Creating Embryonic Stem Cell Lines

    Creating Embryonic Stem Cell Lines

    Animations

    (1 min 38 sec) The inner cell mass (ICM) cells of blastocyst-stage early human embryos can be removed and cultured. These cells can be grown in the lab indefinitely. Various growth factors cause these cells to develop into a variety of differentiated cells, such as muscle or nerve cells.

  • Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Animation

    Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Animation

    Animations

    (52 sec) Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique for cloning. The nucleus is removed from a healthy egg. This egg becomes the host for a nucleus that is transplanted from another cell, such as a skin cell. The resulting embryo can be used to generate embryonic stem cells with a genetic match to the nucleus donor (therapeutic cloning), or can be implanted into a surrogate mother to create a cloned individual, such as Dolly the sheep (reproductive cloning).

  • Zebrafish Heart Regeneration

    Zebrafish Heart Regeneration

    Animations

    (2 min 30 sec) The zebrafish heart is similar to the human heart in many respects. But unlike the human heart, the fish heart closes wounds rapidly and then regenerates to nearly full function. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is an important molecule in the regeneration process.

  • How The Body Uses Fat

    How The Body Uses Fat

    Click & Learn

    This slide show explores some of the ways the body processes fat, including digestion, transport, conversion, and energy extraction.

  • Molecular Structure of Fat

    Molecular Structure of Fat

    Click & Learn

    This slide show delves into the various molecular shapes that fat can take.

  • Leptin Feedback Control System

    Leptin Feedback Control System

    Animations

    (1 min 1 sec) Demonstrates how changes in the amount of fat tissue lead to changes in leptin levels and thus changes in appetite.

  • PPAR-gamma Activation in the Fat Cell

    PPAR-gamma Activation in the Fat Cell

    Animations

    (2 min 49 sec) The PPAR-gamma receptor activates certain genes in a fat cell, resulting in the storage of fat and changes in hormone levels.

  • X Inactivation

    X Inactivation

    Animations

    (55 sec) This animation shows how the random deactivation of one of the X chromosomes in a pair can lead to a mozaicism in the expression genes. 

  • Meiosis

    Meiosis

    Animations

    (5 min 53 sec) This animation shows how meiosis, the form of cell division unique to egg and sperm production, can give rise to sperm that carry either an X or a Y chromosome.  

  • The Drosophila Molecular Clock Model

    The Drosophila Molecular Clock Model

    Animations

    (7 min 35 sec) Watch these animations display the dynamic orchestration of the molecular events of the Drosophila biological clock.

  • Bacterial Conjugation

    Bacterial Conjugation

    Animations

    (23 sec) Bacteria can transfer genetic material, and thus drug resistance, to other bacteria via conjugation.

  • Neurophysiology Virtual Lab

    Neurophysiology Virtual Lab

    Virtual Labs

    In this virtual lab, you will record electrical activities of individual neurons, identify by response to stimuli, and use dyes to visualize their morphology.

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