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  • Coding sequences in DNA

    Coding sequences in DNA

    Animation

    (1 min 5 sec) Of the 3 billion letters in the human genome, only 1% directly code for proteins. Of the rest, about 25% make up genes and their regulatory elements. The functions of the remaining letters are still unclear.

  • Chargaff's Ratio

    Chargaff's Ratio

    Animation

    (49 sec) In 1950, Erwin Chargaff published a paper stating that in the DNA of any given species, the ratio of adenine to thymine is equal, as is the ratio of cytosine to guanine. This became known as Chargaff's ratio, and it was an important clue for solving the structure of DNA.

  • Building blocks of DNA

    Building blocks of DNA

    Animation

    (27 sec) Adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T) are the components of nucleic acid that make up DNA.

  • MECP2

    MECP2

    Animation

    (43 sec) This animation shows how the protein MECP2, in conjuction with another protein complex, can act as an "on-off' switch for gene expression.

  • p53

    p53

    Animation

    (26 sec) A 3D animation showing the molecule p53 binds to DNA and initiates the transcription of mRNA.

  • Mismatch Repair

    Mismatch Repair

    Animation

    (1 min 22 sec) This animation illustrates how mistakes made during DNA replication are repaired.

  • Tri Nucleotide Repeat

    Tri Nucleotide Repeat

    Animation

    (1 min 8 sec) Slippage during DNA replication can lead to expanding sections of repeating nucleotides. Watch this animation to see how this problem occurs. 

  • X Inactivation

    X Inactivation

    Animation

    (55 sec) This animation shows how the random deactivation of one of the X chromosomes in a pair can lead to a mozaicism in the expression genes. 

  • Using DNA to Trace Human Migration

    Using DNA to Trace Human Migration

    Click & Learn

    All living humans originated from populations of ancestors who migrated out of Africa less than 100,000 years ago. Learn how scientists have used genetic markers to trace the migration routes and origins of modern human populations.

  • How to Analyze DNA Microarray Data

    How to Analyze DNA Microarray Data

    Click & Learn

    DNA microarrays, or gene chips, are an important new technology for genomic research. Learn how researchers use computing to analyze and interpret the huge datasets generated by microarray experiments.

  • Scanning Life's Matrix: Genes, Proteins, and Small Molecules

    Scanning Life's Matrix: Genes, Proteins, and Small Molecules

    Lecture

    In four presentations, Stuart L. Schreiber, PhD, and Eric S. Lander, PhD, open a window onto the fast-paced world of genomic science and chemical genetics.

  • Test Your Knowledge of Sex Determination

    Test Your Knowledge of Sex Determination

    Click & Learn

    Answer the questions in this online quiz to test your knowledge of what determines the sex of a human, a fruit fly, and a snapping turtle.

  • The Meaning of Sex: Genes and Gender

    The Meaning of Sex: Genes and Gender

    Lecture

    Four talks focus on sex determination—the molecular and genetic mechanisms that determine whether an organism will be male, female or a hermaphrodite.

  • Meiosis

    Meiosis

    Animation

    (5 min 53 sec) Meiosis, the form of cell division unique to egg and sperm production, sets the stage for sex determination by creating sperm that carry either an X or a Y sex chromosome. But what is it about the X or Y that determines sex? Also available in Spanish.

  • The Y Chromosome

    The Y Chromosome

    Animation

    (2 min 46 sec) The Y chromosome has been likened to a hall of mirrors because its sequence contains many sections that appear to be palindromes. These palindromes provide a clue to some interesting events that may have occurred during the course of the chromosome's evolution.

  • Transgenic Fly Virtual Lab

    Transgenic Fly Virtual Lab

    Virtual Lab

    The lab will familiarize you with the science and techniques used to make transgenic flies to study circadian rhythms.

  • Clockwork Genes: Discoveries in Biological Time

    Clockwork Genes: Discoveries in Biological Time

    Lecture

    Four lectures highlight the research of two scientists who have made groundbreaking discoveries elucidating the molecular basis of circadian clocks—the internal timekeepers that govern fluctuations in behavior and physiology on a 24-hour cycle.

  • The Drosophila Molecular Clock Model

    The Drosophila Molecular Clock Model

    Animation

    (7 min 35 sec) Watch these animations display the dynamic orchestration of the molecular events of the Drosophila biological clock.

  • The Mammalian Molecular Clock Model

    The Mammalian Molecular Clock Model

    Animation

    (3 min 41 sec) This animation shows the molecular interactions involved in the negative feedback loop responsible for circadian rhythms in mammals.

  • Bacterial Identification Virtual Lab

    Bacterial Identification Virtual Lab

    Virtual Lab

    This virtual lab will familiarize you with the science and techniques used to identify different types of bacteria based on their DNA sequences.

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