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  • Regulation of Eukaryotic DNA Transcription

    Regulation of Eukaryotic DNA Transcription

    Animations

    (2 min 5 sec) General transcription factors, activators, and repressors interact to regulate the transcription of eukaryotic DNA into RNA.

  • Dengue Virus Life Cycle

    Dengue Virus Life Cycle

    Animations

    (4 min 12 sec) Dengue virus has sophisticated mechanisms for entering a cell, for replicating its RNA genome, and for translating proteins.

  • HIV life cycle

    HIV life cycle

    Animations

    (4 min 52 sec) How HIV infects a cell and replicates itself using reverse transcriptase and the host's cellular machinery.

  • AZT blocks reverse transcriptase

    AZT blocks reverse transcriptase

    Animations

    (1 min 46 sec) HIV's reverse transcriptase mistakes AZT for thymidine. Once incorporated, AZT stops reverse transcription.

  • Translation (advanced detail)

    Translation (advanced detail)

    Animations

    (3 min 4 sec) Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries DNA's genetic information to the ribosome, where it is translated into a sequence of amino acids. mRNA is fed into the ribosome, and it is positioned so that it can be read in groups of three letters, known as codons. Each mRNA codon is matched against the transfer RNA molecule's anti-codon. If there is a match, the amino acid carried by the transfer RNA is added to the growing protein chain. Also available in Spanish.

  • Translation (Basic Detail)

    Translation (Basic Detail)

    Animations

    (2 min 6 sec) This animation shows the translation of messenger RNA into protein.

  • DNA Transcription (Advanced Detail)

    DNA Transcription (Advanced Detail)

    Animations

    (1 min 55 sec) This animation shows how RNA polymerase and other transcription factors interact to transcribe DNA into RNA.

  • DNA Transcription (Basic Detail)

    DNA Transcription (Basic Detail)

    Animations

    (1 min 55 sec) This animation shows the transcription of DNA into RNA.

  • mRNA splicing

    mRNA splicing

    Animations

    (39 sec) Once a gene has been transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA), it is edited in a process called splicing. Noncoding regions called introns are removed, leaving protein-coding regions called exons.

  • RNA Diversity

    RNA Diversity

    Click & Learn

    RNA is an information molecule that can also function as an enzyme. Learn about the many different forms that RNA can take.

  • Enzymes That Are Not Proteins: The Discovery of Ribozymes

    Enzymes That Are Not Proteins: The Discovery of Ribozymes

    Clips

    (19 min 4 sec) Listen to past HHMI President Dr. Thomas Cech discussing his Nobel Prize-winning discovery of RNA's catalytic properties.

  • RNA Folding

    RNA Folding

    Animations

    (33 sec) Since RNA is single-stranded, it can fold upon itself and form structures that are protein-like in both appearance and functionality.