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  • Virus Hunters: Epidemiology of Nipah Virus

    Virus Hunters: Epidemiology of Nipah Virus


    In this activity, students will be exploring cases of Nipah virus (NiV) infection as an epidemiologist would, by collecting evidence and making calculations and predictions, based on scientific data.

  • Viral Lysis and Budding

    Viral Lysis and Budding


    This activity outlines two demonstrations that model how enveloped and nonenveloped viruses are released from infected cells.

  • HIV Protease Inhibitors

    HIV Protease Inhibitors


    This demonstration models how the HIV protease enzyme functions and how its activity is blocked by a class of anti-HIV drugs.

  • HIV Life Cycle Activities

    HIV Life Cycle Activities


    A collection of activities and demonstrations focusing on various aspects of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) life cycle. They are designed to be completed individually or as part of the series...

  • Viral DNA Integration

    Viral DNA Integration


    In this hands-on activity, students model how a double-stranded DNA copy of the HIV genome is integrated into the host cell DNA.

  • HIV Reverse Transcription and AZT

    HIV Reverse Transcription and AZT


    Students model how the anti-HIV drug AZT (azidothymidine) interferes with the process of viral replication.

  • HIV Receptors and Co-receptors

    HIV Receptors and Co-receptors


    This demonstration models the first step of the HIV life cycle: the binding of HIV envelope proteins to receptors on human helper T cells.

  • Think Like a Scientist: Natural Selection in an Outbreak

    Think Like a Scientist: Natural Selection in an Outbreak

    Scientists at Work

    (7 min 29 sec) This video brings us to the front lines of the 2013–2015 Ebola outbreak in west Africa and explains how scientists monitored the evolution of the virus by analyzing its genome.

  • Ebola: Disease Detectives

    Ebola: Disease Detectives


    In this classroom activity, students will analyze sequences of Ebola viruses isolated from patients in Sierra Leone during the Ebola outbreak of 2013–2016 to track the virus spread. Also available in Spanish.

  • Genetically Modified Mosquitoes

    Genetically Modified Mosquitoes

    Scientists at Work

    (8 min 35 sec) Learn the process by which a line of genetically modified mosquitoes was engineered to reduce populations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in the wild.

  • Patterns of Zoonotic Disease

    Patterns of Zoonotic Disease

    Data Point

    In this study, scientists analyzed previously published data on terrestrial mammal zoonotic host species and the pathogens they carry to search for global patterns of zoonotic disease distribution.

  • Virus Explorer

    Virus Explorer

    Click & Learn

    Explore the similarities and differences of a variety of viruses by sorting them based on structure, genomic make-up, host range, transmission mechanism, and vaccine availability.

  • Virus Hunter: Monitoring Nipah Virus in Bat Populations

    Virus Hunter: Monitoring Nipah Virus in Bat Populations

    Scientists at Work

    (9 min 1 sec) In this video we follow scientists working in Bangladesh as they test fruit bat populations to determine whether they are infected with Nipah virus—a potentially deadly virus when passed on to humans.

  • Mosquito-Borne Viral Diseases

    Mosquito-Borne Viral Diseases


    Most of the viral diseases transmitted by mosquitoes are caused by RNA viruses. One group of RNA viruses, the flavivirus, includes yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis...

  • Rhinovirus


    3D Model

    A 3D model of rhinovirus, an RNA genome virus that is the main cause of the common cold in humans.

  • Nodamura Virus

    Nodamura Virus

    3D Model

    A 3D model of nodamura virus.

  • Dengue Virus

    Dengue Virus

    3D Model

    A 3D model of dengue virus.

  • Teacher Guide: Immunology

    Teacher Guide: Immunology

    Teacher Guide

    Topics include: Immunology, HIV immune response and drug development, ELISA, CCR5 co-receptor mutation, vaccine development, dengue fever, and immunological response

  • From Birds to People: The West Nile Virus Story

    From Birds to People: The West Nile Virus Story

    Click & Learn

    West Nile virus infects mosquitoes, birds, and people—with very different consequences.

  • Virochip DNA Microarray

    Virochip DNA Microarray

    Click & Learn

    Answer interactive questions to explore the logic of the Virochip microarray design, particularly how evolutionary relationships can be used to detect new viruses.

  • Stopping Mosquito-Borne Disease

    Stopping Mosquito-Borne Disease

    Click & Learn

    Learn about the nature of vector-borne diseases, and the life cycle of the dengue vector mosquito.

  • Biology of the Mosquito Vector

    Biology of the Mosquito Vector


    (49 min 28 sec) This discussion from the 2010 Holiday Lectures on Science explores the ethics of genetically-modified organisms and other topics.

  • Solving SARS and Other Viral Mysteries

    Solving SARS and Other Viral Mysteries


    (58 min 33 sec) The SARS epidemic was successfully halted by a global research effort to identify a new virus.

  • The Virus Hunter's Toolkit

    The Virus Hunter's Toolkit


    (58 min 33 sec) New technologies like the Virochip harness DNA's properties to identify and fight new viruses.

  • Dengue Fever: Breaking Epidemic Cycles

    Dengue Fever: Breaking Epidemic Cycles


    (58 min 33 sec) Learn about research aimed at thwarting dengue fever in the lab and in communities.

  • Viral Outbreak: The Science of Emerging Disease

    Viral Outbreak: The Science of Emerging Disease


    Watch two leading virus researchers explain how they use both simple and sophisticated technologies to detect and fight infectious agents.

  • Mosquito Reggaeton, a Dengue Rap Song

    Mosquito Reggaeton, a Dengue Rap Song


    (2 min 4 sec) Reggaeton, a popular Latin music form, rallies against dengue.

  • The Mosquito Life Cycle

    The Mosquito Life Cycle


    (1 min 7 sec) To prevent mosquitoes from spreading diseases, it's essential to understand their life cycle.

  • Bee Colony Collapse Disorder

    Bee Colony Collapse Disorder


    (7 min 46 sec) Charles Runckel, a graduate student in the DeRisi lab, uses the Virochip to examine the mystery of bee colony collapse disorder.

  • Dengue Virus Enters a Cell

    Dengue Virus Enters a Cell


    (1 min 33 sec) Infection begins when the dengue virus uses receptors on an immune cell's surface to gain entry and release its genome.

  • Structure of Dengue Virus

    Structure of Dengue Virus


    (1 min 3 sec) The dengue virus's outer envelope proteins form symmetrical units and overlay the lipid envelope, capsid, and the RNA genome.

  • Dengue Virus Life Cycle

    Dengue Virus Life Cycle


    (4 min 12 sec) Dengue virus has sophisticated mechanisms for entering a cell, for replicating its RNA genome, and for translating proteins.

  • Viral Geometry and Structural Diversity

    Viral Geometry and Structural Diversity


    The geometric structures of viruses are beautiful and can be used, along with genomic information, to identify them.

  • Drug Adherence and Resistance

    Drug Adherence and Resistance

    Click & Learn

    Problems associated with adherence to antiviral drugs, and a student activity that mimics adherence to a multi-drug regimen.

  • Retroviruses and Viral Diversity

    Retroviruses and Viral Diversity

    Click & Learn

    A brief discussion of what makes a virus a retrovirus, and how they differ from other types of viruses.

  • AIDS: Evolution of an Epidemic

    AIDS: Evolution of an Epidemic


    Why has it been so hard to develop a vaccine against HIV? How are new medicines revolutionizing AIDS treatment? Can AIDS be cured?

  • HIV's origins in Africa

    HIV's origins in Africa


    (1 min 11 sec) Dr. Beatrice Hahn discusses how HIV originated in Africa by cross-species transmission from chimpanzees to humans.

  • HIV life cycle

    HIV life cycle


    (4 min 52 sec) How HIV infects a cell and replicates itself using reverse transcriptase and the host's cellular machinery.

  • AZT blocks reverse transcriptase

    AZT blocks reverse transcriptase


    (1 min 46 sec) HIV's reverse transcriptase mistakes AZT for thymidine. Once incorporated, AZT stops reverse transcription.

  • U.S. AIDS epidemic

    U.S. AIDS epidemic


    A visual representation of the U.S. AIDS epidemic from 1981 to 1997. Each dot represents 30 cases.

  • Using p53 to Fight Cancer

    Using p53 to Fight Cancer


    (1 min 2 sec) This animation demonstrates how cancerous cells could be destroyed using a modified virus.

  • Test Your Knowledge of Microbes

    Test Your Knowledge of Microbes

    Click & Learn

    Take this quiz to see how well you understand some of the topics covered in the 1999 Holiday Lectures on infectious disease.

  • 2000 and Beyond: Confronting the Microbe Menace

    2000 and Beyond: Confronting the Microbe Menace


    (57 min 36 sec) In four presentations, Donald E. Ganem, MD, and B. Brett Finlay, PhD, discuss the latest advances in understanding how pathogens invade the body and how this knowledge is leading to the development of new therapies. They also explain how new infectious diseases are recognized and how epidemics arise.

  • Size Analogies of Bacteria and Viruses

    Size Analogies of Bacteria and Viruses


    (1 min 44 sec) Dr. Finlay and Dr. Richard Ganem use physical analogies to compare the size of bacteria and viruses relative to a standard mammalian cell.

  • Recombination of Viral Genome

    Recombination of Viral Genome


    (3 min 5 sec) When two different strains of influenza infect a single cell, their genetic material can mix freely, resulting in a new third strain of influenza.

  • Viral Lifecycle

    Viral Lifecycle


    (1 min 8 sec) Delivering a single virus to a cell allows the virus to infect the cell, replicate, and give rise to many progeny viruses. These viruses can then infect many neighboring cells. Also available in Spanish.

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