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  • Cystic Fibrosis Mechanism and Treatment

    Cystic Fibrosis Mechanism and Treatment

    Animation

    (2 min 31 sec) Mutations in the CFTR gene, which encodes a transmembrane ion channel, cause mucus buildup in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis.

  • Seeing Single Molecules Move

    Seeing Single Molecules Move

    Animation

    (1 min 40 sec) Single-molecule analysis using super-resolution microscopes reveals that transcription factors are not usually found bound to their binding sites on DNA.

  • Gleevec-Resistant Form of Kinase BCR-ABL

    Gleevec-Resistant Form of Kinase BCR-ABL

    Animation

    (2 min 14 sec) Mutations in the BCR-ABL gene can cause resistance to Gleevec, but another drug, dasatinib, can be used instead.

  • Gleevec Inhibits Cancer-Causing Kinase BCR-ABL

    Gleevec Inhibits Cancer-Causing Kinase BCR-ABL

    Animation

    (3 min 31 sec) The drug Gleevec binds to and inactivates BCR-ABL, a mutant kinase that causes chronic myeloid leukemia. 

  • Structure of Dengue Virus

    Structure of Dengue Virus

    Animation

    (1 min 3 sec) The dengue virus's outer envelope proteins form symmetrical units and overlay the lipid envelope, capsid, and the RNA genome.

  • PPAR-gamma Activation in the Fat Cell

    PPAR-gamma Activation in the Fat Cell

    Animation

    (2 min 49 sec) The PPAR-gamma receptor activates certain genes in a fat cell, resulting in the storage of fat and changes in hormone levels.

  • Triplet code

    Triplet code

    Animation

    (1 min 8 sec) Once the structure of DNA was discovered, the next challenge was determining how the sequence of letters coded for the 20 amino acids. In theory, one or two letters can only code for 4 or 16 amino acids, respectively. A scheme using three letters, a triplet code, is the minimum necessary to encode for all the amino acids.

  • DNA packaging

    DNA packaging

    Animation

    (1 min 44 sec) DNA is tightly packed in the nucleus of every cell. DNA wraps around special proteins called histones, which form loops of DNA called nucleosomes. These nucleosomes coil and stack together to form fibers called chromatin. Chromatin in turn forms larger loops and coils to form chromosomes.

  • The Proteasome

    The Proteasome

    Animation

    (1 min 44 sec) A 3D animation showing how proteins in the cell are tagged for disposal and degraded by the proteasome.