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  • Cystic Fibrosis Mechanism and Treatment

    Cystic Fibrosis Mechanism and Treatment

    Animation

    (2 min 31 sec) Mutations in the CFTR gene, which encodes a transmembrane ion channel, cause mucus buildup in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis.

  • HIV Protease Inhibitors

    HIV Protease Inhibitors

    Activity

    This demonstration models how the HIV protease enzyme functions and how its activity is blocked by a class of anti-HIV drugs.

  • Viral DNA Integration

    Viral DNA Integration

    Activity

    In this hands-on activity, students model how a double-stranded DNA copy of the HIV genome is integrated into the host cell DNA.

  • HIV Reverse Transcription and AZT

    HIV Reverse Transcription and AZT

    Activity

    Students model how the anti-HIV drug AZT (azidothymidine) interferes with the process of viral replication.

  • HIV Receptors and Co-receptors

    HIV Receptors and Co-receptors

    Activity

    This demonstration models the first step of the HIV life cycle: the binding of HIV envelope proteins to receptors on human helper T cells.

  • BCR-ABL: Cancer Protein Structure and Function

    BCR-ABL: Cancer Protein Structure and Function

    Click & Learn

    This Click and Learn describes how understanding the structure of the BCR-ABL kinase led to the development of an effective treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia.

  • How Do Fibers Form?

    How Do Fibers Form?

    Activity

    A hands-on activity in which students construct models of sickle-cell hemoglobin fibers inside red blood cells to illustrate how changes in the structure of a protein can affect cell shape. Students are then asked to relate these changes to disease symptoms. Also available in Spanish.

  • Natural Selection and Evolution of Rock Pocket Mouse Populations

    Natural Selection and Evolution of Rock Pocket Mouse Populations

    Activity

    An activity in which students analyze amino acid data and draw conclusions about the evolution of coat color phenotypes in different rock pocket mouse populations.

  • Biochemistry and Cell Signaling Pathway of the Mc1r Gene

    Biochemistry and Cell Signaling Pathway of the Mc1r Gene

    Activity

    An advanced lesson that requires students to analyze partial DNA sequences of the Mc1r gene and identify the effects of mutations on the MC1R protein pathway.

  • The Proteasome and Protein Regulation

    The Proteasome and Protein Regulation

    Click & Learn

    Learn about the structure and function of this fascinating cellular machine.

  • Triplet code

    Triplet code

    Animation

    (1 min 8 sec) Once the structure of DNA was discovered, the next challenge was determining how the sequence of letters coded for the 20 amino acids. In theory, one or two letters can only code for 4 or 16 amino acids, respectively. A scheme using three letters, a triplet code, is the minimum necessary to encode for all the amino acids.

  • The Proteasome

    The Proteasome

    Animation

    (1 min 44 sec) A 3D animation showing how proteins in the cell are tagged for disposal and degraded by the proteasome.

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