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  • Paired DNA strands

    Paired DNA strands

    Animation

    (1 min 18 sec) DNA has a double helix structure. If untwisted, DNA looks like two parallel strands. Each strand has a linear sequence of A, C, G, and T. The precise order of the letters carries the coded instructions. One strand is a complementary image of the other: A always pairs with T, and C always pairs with G.

  • Rapamycin

    Rapamycin

    Animation

    (1 min 10 sec) Rapamycin is a small molecule originally isolated from nature. It has antibiotic and immunosuppressive properties. It also allows two proteins which do not normally interact to bind together in the cell, which causes problems in the nutrient-sensing pathway.

  • Small-Molecule Microarrays

    Small-Molecule Microarrays

    Animation

    (1 min) Microarray technology is useful for screening many small molecules at once. Automated devices have made it possible for thousands of different small molecules to be printed as an array of spots on a glass slide. A single type of protein which has been tagged with a fluorescent marker can then be washed across the array. Any small molecule that binds to the protein can be detected by scanning for spots that are fluorescent.

  • Using Small Molecules to Modulate a Protein

    Using Small Molecules to Modulate a Protein

    Animation

    This animation illustrates how a small molecule binds to a protein. As a result of the binding, the protein alters its shape and becomes inactivated.