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Showing 1-69 of 69 Resources
  • Cystic Fibrosis Mechanism and Treatment

    Cystic Fibrosis Mechanism and Treatment

    Animations

    (2 min 31 sec) Mutations in the CFTR gene, which encodes a transmembrane ion channel, cause mucus buildup in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis.

  • EarthViewer

    EarthViewer

    Click & Learn

    Download the accompanying student worksheet under "Downloads." What did Earth look like 250 million years ago? Or 1 billion years ago? Or 4.5 billion years ago? EarthViewer is an interactive tool that allows you to explore the science of Earth's deep history.

  • HIV Protease Inhibitors

    HIV Protease Inhibitors

    Activities

    This demonstration models how the HIV protease enzyme functions and how its activity is blocked by a class of anti-HIV drugs.

  • HIV Life Cycle Activities

    HIV Life Cycle Activities

    Collection

    A collection of activities and demonstrations focusing on various aspects of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) life cycle. They are designed to be completed individually or as part of the series...

  • Viral DNA Integration

    Viral DNA Integration

    Activities

    In this hands-on activity, students model how a double-stranded DNA copy of the HIV genome is integrated into the host cell DNA.

  • HIV Reverse Transcription and AZT

    HIV Reverse Transcription and AZT

    Activities

    Students model how the anti-HIV drug AZT (azidothymidine) interferes with the process of viral replication.

  • HIV Receptors and Co-receptors

    HIV Receptors and Co-receptors

    Activities

    This demonstration models the first step of the HIV life cycle: the binding of HIV envelope proteins to receptors on human helper T cells.

  • Ocean Acidification

    Ocean Acidification

    Activities

    In this hands-on activity, students simulate the effects of decreasing pH caused by rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  • Efficacy of a Treatment for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    Efficacy of a Treatment for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    Data Points

    Dr. Brian Druker and colleagues monitored white blood cell counts in six patients with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with the drug, STI571, which blocks the activity of the cancer-causing tyrosine kinase BCR-ABL.

  • How We Get Our Skin Color Interactive

    How We Get Our Skin Color Interactive

    Interactive Videos

    (3 min 32 sec) This interactive animation about the biology of skin color provides stop points at which students can further explore the material through additional text and illustrations, videos, questions, and simple interactive widgets.

  • Chemistry of Life

    Chemistry of Life

    Collection

    Resources related to chemistry, biochemistry, and biological macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids.

  • Seeing Single Molecules Move

    Seeing Single Molecules Move

    Animations

    (1 min 40 sec) Single-molecule analysis using super-resolution microscopes reveals that transcription factors are not usually found bound to their binding sites on DNA.

  • BCR-ABL: Cancer Protein Structure and Function

    BCR-ABL: Cancer Protein Structure and Function

    Click & Learn

    This Click and Learn describes how understanding the structure of the BCR-ABL kinase led to the development of an effective treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia.

  • Dasatinib

    Dasatinib

    3D Models

    A 3D model of dasatinib, a drug that can inhibit BCR-ABL and Gleevec-resistant BCR-ABL.


  • Imatinib (Gleevec)

    Imatinib (Gleevec)

    3D Models

    A 3D model of imatinib (Gleevec), a drug that mimics ATP and inhibits BCR-ABL.

  • Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

    Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

    3D Models

    A 3D model of adenosine triphosphate, or ATP.

  • Gleevec-resistant BCR-ABL: ABL Kinase Domain

    Gleevec-resistant BCR-ABL: ABL Kinase Domain

    3D Models

    A 3D model of gleevec-resistant BCR-ABL, a mutated form of BCR-ABL.

  • BCR-ABL: ABL Kinase Domain

    BCR-ABL: ABL Kinase Domain

    3D Models

    A 3D model of BCR-ABL, an unregulated kinase that causes cancer.

  • Earth Systems Activity

    Earth Systems Activity

    Activities

    This activity guides students through building a conceptual model of how carbon dioxide affects Earth's climate

  • Cancer As a Genetic Disease

    Cancer As a Genetic Disease

    Science Talks

    (58 min 33 sec) Understanding that cancer is caused by mutations in genes that regulate cell proliferation has led to the development of targeted drug therapies.

  • Gleevec-Resistant Form of Kinase BCR-ABL

    Gleevec-Resistant Form of Kinase BCR-ABL

    Animations

    (2 min 14 sec) Mutations in the BCR-ABL gene can cause resistance to Gleevec, but another drug, dasatinib, can be used instead.

  • Gleevec Inhibits Cancer-Causing Kinase BCR-ABL

    Gleevec Inhibits Cancer-Causing Kinase BCR-ABL

    Animations

    (3 min 31 sec) The drug Gleevec binds to and inactivates BCR-ABL, a mutant kinase that causes chronic myeloid leukemia. 

  • Film Guides: The Double Helix

    Film Guides: The Double Helix

    Film Guides

    The following classroom-ready resources complement The Double Helix. This short film describes the evidence that led James Watson and Francis Crick to the discovery of the double-helical structure of DNA and how the structure immediately revealed how genetic information is stored and inherited.

  • Lactose Intolerance: Fact or Fiction

    Lactose Intolerance: Fact or Fiction

    Activities

    Students evaluate and discuss several statements about lactose intolerance and evolution before and after watching the film. Also available in Spanish.

  • The Double Helix

    The Double Helix

    Short Films

    (16 min 53 sec) The Double Helix is the story of the scientists and evidence involved in one of the most important scientific quests of the 20th century: the discovery of the structure of DNA. Also available in Spanish.

  • Got Lactase? Blood Glucose Data Analysis

    Got Lactase? Blood Glucose Data Analysis

    Activities

    Students interpret the results of two different tests for lactase persistence.

  • Geological History of Oxygen

    Geological History of Oxygen

    Click & Learn

    Explore the changes in oxygen levels throughout Earth’s history and discover their impact on life.

  • Teacher Guide: DNA

    Teacher Guide: DNA

    Resource Guides

    Topics include: DNA structure and function, DNA replication, damage to DNA and eukaryotic chromosomal structure.

  • The Day the Mesozoic Died

    The Day the Mesozoic Died

    Short Films

    (33 min 43 sec) The disappearance of the dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous period posed one of the greatest, long-standing scientific mysteries. This three-act film tells the story of the extraordinary detective work that solved it. Also available in Spanish.

  • Lactose Digestion in Infants

    Lactose Digestion in Infants

    Animations

    (53 sec) The lactase enzyme is produced in the small intestine of infants. It digests lactose by breaking it into glucose and galactose.

  • Calculating Iridium Fallout From an Asteroid Impact

    Calculating Iridium Fallout From an Asteroid Impact

    Activities

    A worksheet in which students calculate how much iridium was released, and eventually deposited all over the Earth, by the impact of the asteroid that caused the K-T extinction.

  • Distribution of Elements in Earth’s Crust

    Distribution of Elements in Earth’s Crust

    Activities

    A lesson in which students read a passage and answer questions about the information presented, testing their non-fiction reading comprehension.

  • Chemical Signatures of Asteroid Impacts

    Chemical Signatures of Asteroid Impacts

    Activities

    A lesson in which students analyze the chemical data that led researchers to conclude that the K-T boundary layer contained an extraordinary concentration of iridium. 

  • Winogradsky columns: Microbial ecology in the classroom

    Winogradsky columns: Microbial ecology in the classroom

    Activities

    An activity that recreates zones of microbial activity in a glass column. To accompany the lecture series Changing Planet: Past, Present, Future.

  • Diet and the Evolution of Salivary Amylase

    Diet and the Evolution of Salivary Amylase

    Activities

    Students explore the effects of different diets on the evolution of an enzyme that breaks down starch. Also available in Spanish.

  • How Do Fibers Form?

    How Do Fibers Form?

    Activities

    A hands-on activity in which students construct models of sickle-cell hemoglobin fibers inside red blood cells to illustrate how changes in the structure of a protein can affect cell shape. Students are then asked to relate these changes to disease symptoms. Also available in Spanish.

  • Ice Crystal Formation in Icefish and Non-Icefish Blood

    Ice Crystal Formation in Icefish and Non-Icefish Blood

    Activities

    A dramatic demonstration that simulates how tiny ice crystals would form and grow in the blood of most fish if they ventured into the icy waters of the Antarctic.

  • Natural Selection and Evolution of Rock Pocket Mouse Populations

    Natural Selection and Evolution of Rock Pocket Mouse Populations

    Activities

    An activity in which students analyze amino acid data and draw conclusions about the evolution of coat color phenotypes in different rock pocket mouse populations.

  • Biochemistry and Cell Signaling Pathway of the Mc1r Gene

    Biochemistry and Cell Signaling Pathway of the Mc1r Gene

    Activities

    An advanced lesson that requires students to analyze partial DNA sequences of the Mc1r gene and identify the effects of mutations on the MC1R protein pathway.

  • Structure of Dengue Virus

    Structure of Dengue Virus

    Animations

    (1 min 3 sec) The dengue virus's outer envelope proteins form symmetrical units and overlay the lipid envelope, capsid, and the RNA genome.

  • The Chemical Structure of DNA

    The Chemical Structure of DNA

    Animations

    (2 min 44 sec) DNA's chemical properties can be harnessed for a variety of biotechnology applications.

  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

    Animations

    (54 sec) PCR is a standard laboratory technique that allows amplification of specific segments of DNA based on complementarity.

  • The LUX operon controls light production

    The LUX operon controls light production

    Animations

    (2 min 25 sec) A single transcription factor controls this operon, which contains five genes necessary to produce bioluminescence.

  • Signal molecules trigger transcription factors

    Signal molecules trigger transcription factors

    Animations

    (2 min 4 sec) Varying concentrations of a signaling molecule activate different transcription factors and determine cell fate.

  • AZT blocks reverse transcriptase

    AZT blocks reverse transcriptase

    Animations

    (1 min 46 sec) HIV's reverse transcriptase mistakes AZT for thymidine. Once incorporated, AZT stops reverse transcription.

  • Visualizing Gene-Expression Patterns

    Visualizing Gene-Expression Patterns

    Click & Learn

    Learn about the different ways scientists are able to detect when genes are being expressed in various tissues.

  • What Is Fat?

    What Is Fat?

    Posters

    The poster from the 2004 Holiday Lectures on Science, The Science of Fat. See how fat is stored and metabolized. (This poster is designed to printed at a maximum size of 29.5" x 23.5".)

  • How The Body Uses Fat

    How The Body Uses Fat

    Click & Learn

    This slide show explores some of the ways the body processes fat, including digestion, transport, conversion, and energy extraction.

  • Molecular Structure of Fat

    Molecular Structure of Fat

    Click & Learn

    This slide show delves into the various molecular shapes that fat can take.

  • PPAR-gamma Activation in the Fat Cell

    PPAR-gamma Activation in the Fat Cell

    Animations

    (2 min 49 sec) The PPAR-gamma receptor activates certain genes in a fat cell, resulting in the storage of fat and changes in hormone levels.

  • Watson constructing base pair models

    Watson constructing base pair models

    Clips

    (1 min 42 sec) During the process of trying to elucidate the structure of DNA, Jim Watson made some cardboard models to try to understand how DNA nucleotides are paired. It helped him visualize how hydrogen atoms of paired nucleotides interact with each other to form a symmetrical structure that fits the double helix model.

  • Triplet code

    Triplet code

    Animations

    (1 min 8 sec) Once the structure of DNA was discovered, the next challenge was determining how the sequence of letters coded for the 20 amino acids. In theory, one or two letters can only code for 4 or 16 amino acids, respectively. A scheme using three letters, a triplet code, is the minimum necessary to encode for all the amino acids.

  • DNA transcription (advanced detail)

    DNA transcription (advanced detail)

    Animations

    (1 min 55 sec) The process of copying DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA) is called transcription. Transcription factors assemble at the promoter region of a gene, bringing an RNA polymerase enzyme to form the transcription initiation complex. Activator proteins at the enhancer region of DNA then activate the transcription initiation complex. RNA polymerase unzips a small portion of the DNA and copies one strand into an mRNA molecule. Also available in Spanish.

  • DNA transcription (basic detail)

    DNA transcription (basic detail)

    Animations

    (1 min 55 sec) The first phase of the process of reading DNA information to make proteins starts with a molecule unzipping the DNA. The molecule then copies one of the strands of DNA into a strand of RNA, a close cousin of DNA. This process is called transcription. Also available in Spanish.

  • Sanger method of DNA sequencing

    Sanger method of DNA sequencing

    Animations

    (52 sec) Fred Sanger developed the first technique for sequencing DNA. DNA is replicated in the presence of chemically altered versions of the A, C, G, and T bases. These bases stop the replication process when they are incorporated into the growing strand of DNA, resulting in varying lengths of short DNA. These short DNA strands are ordered by size, and by reading the end letters from the shortest to the longest piece, the whole sequence of the original DNA is revealed.

  • DNA replication (advanced detail)

    DNA replication (advanced detail)

    Animations

    (2 min 20 sec) Both strands of the DNA double helix act as templates for the new DNA strands. Incoming DNA is unraveled by the enzyme helicase, resulting in the 3' strand and the 5' strand. The 3' strands and the 5' strands are replicated by a DNA polymerase enzyme but in different ways. Also available in Spanish.

  • DNA replication (basic detail)

    DNA replication (basic detail)

    Animations

    (1 min 7 sec) Using information from molecular research, this 3-D animation shows how DNA is replicated at the molecular level. It involves an enzyme that unwinds the DNA, and other enzymes that copy the two resulting strands. Also available in Spanish.

  • DNA replication (schematic)

    DNA replication (schematic)

    Animations

    (50 sec) The structure of DNA, discovered by James Watson and Francis Crick, suggests a mechanism of replication. The double helix unwinds, and each strand acts as a template for the construction of the new DNA molecule. Also available in Spanish.

  • Polymerase chain reaction

    Polymerase chain reaction

    Animations

    (1 min 28 sec) Polymerase chain reaction, or PCR, is a technique for making many copies of a specific DNA sequence. DNA is repeatedly heated and cooled in the presence of primers that bracket the desired sequence and of the enzyme Tac polymerase. In as few as 30 cycles, a billion copies of the target sequence can be made.

  • Paired DNA strands

    Paired DNA strands

    Animations

    (1 min 18 sec) DNA has a double helix structure. If untwisted, DNA looks like two parallel strands. Each strand has a linear sequence of A, C, G, and T. The precise order of the letters carries the coded instructions. One strand is a complementary image of the other: A always pairs with T, and C always pairs with G.

  • DNA packaging

    DNA packaging

    Animations

    (1 min 44 sec) DNA is tightly packed in the nucleus of every cell. DNA wraps around special proteins called histones, which form loops of DNA called nucleosomes. These nucleosomes coil and stack together to form fibers called chromatin. Chromatin in turn forms larger loops and coils to form chromosomes.

  • Damage to DNA leads to mutation

    Damage to DNA leads to mutation

    Animations

    (1 min 7 sec) Reactive molecules, such as free radicals, and solar ultraviolet radiation can lead to mutations in DNA. Most mutations are corrected, but in rare cases mutations can accumulate and cause diseases such as cancer.

  • Coding sequences in DNA

    Coding sequences in DNA

    Animations

    (1 min 5 sec) Of the 3 billion letters in the human genome, only 1% directly code for proteins. Of the rest, about 25% make up genes and their regulatory elements. The functions of the remaining letters are still unclear.

  • Chargaff's Ratio

    Chargaff's Ratio

    Animations

    (49 sec) In 1950, Erwin Chargaff published a paper stating that in the DNA of any given species, the ratio of adenine to thymine is equal, as is the ratio of cytosine to guanine. This became known as Chargaff's ratio, and it was an important clue for solving the structure of DNA.

  • Building blocks of DNA

    Building blocks of DNA

    Animations

    (27 sec) Adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T) are the components of nucleic acid that make up DNA.

  • The Proteasome

    The Proteasome

    Animations

    (1 min 44 sec) A 3D animation showing how proteins in the cell are tagged for disposal and degraded by the proteasome.

  • Mismatch Repair

    Mismatch Repair

    Animations

    (1 min 22 sec) This animation illustrates how mistakes made during DNA replication are repaired.

  • Enzymes That Are Not Proteins: The Discovery of Ribozymes

    Enzymes That Are Not Proteins: The Discovery of Ribozymes

    Clips

    (19 min 4 sec) Listen to past HHMI President Dr. Thomas Cech discussing his Nobel Prize-winning discovery of RNA's catalytic properties.

  • RNA Folding

    RNA Folding

    Animations

    (33 sec) Since RNA is single-stranded, it can fold upon itself and form structures that are protein-like in both appearance and functionality.

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