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  • Cystic Fibrosis Mechanism and Treatment

    Cystic Fibrosis Mechanism and Treatment


    (2 min 31 sec) Mutations in the CFTR gene, which encodes a transmembrane ion channel, cause mucus buildup in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis.

  • Seeing Single Molecules Move

    Seeing Single Molecules Move


    (1 min 40 sec) Single-molecule analysis using super-resolution microscopes reveals that transcription factors are not usually found bound to their binding sites on DNA.

  • Holmes' Model of Convection

    Holmes' Model of Convection


    (45 sec) An early continental drift model proposed that mantle convection can produce continental movement and new plate formation.

  • Daly's Model of Subduction

    Daly's Model of Subduction


    (2 min 19 sec) An early model of continental drift proposed that parts of continental plates can sink into the mantle, allowing for movement.

  • Dengue Fever Re-Emergence in the Americas

    Dengue Fever Re-Emergence in the Americas


    (24 sec) Since the 1960s dengue fever has spread to many countries and total case numbers have exploded.

  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)


    (54 sec) PCR is a standard laboratory technique that allows amplification of specific segments of DNA based on complementarity.

  • Running a Virochip Experiment

    Running a Virochip Experiment


    (2 min 15 sec) A sample is put on a Virochip microarray, and results are compared to databases of all known viral sequences.

  • Motor cabal toxins block motor neuron synapses

    Motor cabal toxins block motor neuron synapses


    (3 min 28 sec) Multiple cone snail toxins attack different molecules of the nervous system and cause paralysis.

  • Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Animation

    Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Animation


    (52 sec) Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique for cloning. The nucleus is removed from a healthy egg. This egg becomes the host for a nucleus that is transplanted from another cell, such as a skin cell. The resulting embryo can be used to generate embryonic stem cells with a genetic match to the nucleus donor (therapeutic cloning), or can be implanted into a surrogate mother to create a cloned individual, such as Dolly the sheep (reproductive cloning).

  • Body Mass Index (BMI)

    Body Mass Index (BMI)


    (1 min 23 sec) Comparison of the change in BMI for a given height and varying weights.

  • Shotgun sequencing

    Shotgun sequencing


    (1 min) In shotgun sequencing many copies of the entire genome are "blown up" into millions of small fragments. Each small fragment is sequenced. Powerful computers then assemble the individual fragments into the original configuration. Repeat sequences pose a problem for this approach because their sizes can be much larger than the small fragments.

  • Sanger method of DNA sequencing

    Sanger method of DNA sequencing


    (52 sec) Fred Sanger developed the first technique for sequencing DNA. DNA is replicated in the presence of chemically altered versions of the A, C, G, and T bases. These bases stop the replication process when they are incorporated into the growing strand of DNA, resulting in varying lengths of short DNA. These short DNA strands are ordered by size, and by reading the end letters from the shortest to the longest piece, the whole sequence of the original DNA is revealed.

  • Polymerase chain reaction

    Polymerase chain reaction


    (1 min 28 sec) Polymerase chain reaction, or PCR, is a technique for making many copies of a specific DNA sequence. DNA is repeatedly heated and cooled in the presence of primers that bracket the desired sequence and of the enzyme Tac polymerase. In as few as 30 cycles, a billion copies of the target sequence can be made.

  • Genetic engineering

    Genetic engineering


    (1 min 13 sec) A new gene can be inserted into a loop of bacterial DNA called a plasmid. This is done by cutting the plasmid DNA with a restriction enzyme, which allows a new piece of DNA to be inserted. The ends of the new piece of DNA are stitched together by an enzyme called DNA ligase. The genetically engineered bacteria will now manufacture any protein coded by genes on the newly inserted DNA.

  • Using p53 to Fight Cancer

    Using p53 to Fight Cancer


    (1 min 2 sec) This animation demonstrates how cancerous cells could be destroyed using a modified virus.

  • Measuring Circadian Activity in Drosophila

    Measuring Circadian Activity in Drosophila


    (2 min 3 sec) This animation series shows four experiments that compare the activity patterns of a wild-type fly keeping a normal schedule with those of a mutant fly apparently following a 19-hour internal clock.

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