- NGSS (2013) LS
- AP Biology (2015)
- 2.C.1, 2.C.2, SP3
- IB Biology (2016)
- 1.6, 2.9, 8.3, 9.3
- AP Environmental Science (2013)
- Common Core (2010)
- Vision and Change (2009)
- CC2, DP1
Towards the end of his life, Charles Darwin, assisted by his son, Francis, wrote several books on plants including “The Power of Movement in Plants” published in 1880. The father and son team performed many experiments on plants and observed that they exhibit a range of behaviors previously only attributed to animals – a controversial conclusion at the time. For example, cells near the end of the root tip (pictured here in the lower center of the image) use the movement of organelles and the release of hormones to sense gravity, which affects the timing and location of cell division and root elongation. Such processes enable a root to grow down into the soil.
This activity also uses the image Super Stoma as an anchoring phenomenon to explore the response of plant cells to stimuli.
The downloadable Educator Materials PDF, which includes background information and implementation suggestions for using the images as an anchoring phenomenon, and the Student Handout, which includes the images and background, have been remediated to comply with Section 508 of the National Rehabilitation Act for accessibility and can be used with screen readers.
To generate this image, Arabidopsis thaliana plants were genetically labelled with a plasma membrane marker (in green) and a nuclear marker (in purple). The root tips were imaged using time-lapse microscopy in a confocal microscope with a vertical specimen stage. Growing root tips were tracked using the custom-built “TipTracker” MATLAB® program that allows the microscope to follow the growing root tip.
Daniel von Wangenheim, Robert Hauschild, Matyáš Fendrych, Vanessa Barone, Eva Benkova and Jirí Friml, Daniel von Wangenheim, PhD, Developmental and Cell Biology of Plants, Institute of Science and Technology, Austria