General transcription factors, activators, and repressors interact to regulate the transcription of eukaryotic DNA into RNA.
HIV's reverse transcriptase mistakes AZT for thymidine. Once incorporated, AZT stops reverse transcription.
Since RNA is single-stranded, it can fold upon itself and form structures that are protein-like in both appearance and functionality.
Once a gene has been transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA), it is edited in a process called splicing. Noncoding regions called introns are removed, leaving protein-coding regions called exons.
The ribosome is a molecular factory that translates the genetic information in RNA into a string of amino acids that becomes a protein. Inside the ribosome, the genetic code of the RNA is read three letters at a time and compared with the corresponding code on a transfer molecule. When a match...
Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries DNA's genetic information to the ribosome, where it is translated into a sequence of amino acids. mRNA is fed into the ribosome, and it is positioned so that it can be read in groups of three letters, known as codons. Each mRNA codon is matched against the transfer...