La quitina es la materia de los caparazones de los cangrejos y de las cubiertas de los ácaros del polvo, de las membranas celulares de los líquenes y de incluso las partes internas rígidas de gusanos parasitarios. También podría ser la materia que inicia el asma.
New research has found that genes that enhance the virulence of bacteria are clearly favored for evolutionary survival.
Nueva investigación ha encontrado que genes que aumentan la virulencia de bacterias son favorecidos claramente por la supervivencia evolutiva.
Researchers have devised a way to activate neurons in a living mouse by shining light on the surface of the animal's brain.
Genetically installing light-sensitive proteins in the brains of mice enables researchers to map functional brain wiring over long distances at unprecendeted levels of detail.
Eligible Institutions for the 2008 Investigator Competition.
HHMI will hold a national competition for investigators and plans to name as many as 50 new researchers by spring 2008.
El HHMI llevará a cabo una competición nacional para investigadores y planea nombrar a tanto como 50 nuevos investigadores en la primavera de 2008.
Studies of human tumor cells implanted in mice have shown that the abnormal activation of four genes drives the spread of breast cancer to the lungs.
Estudios de células tumorales humanas que fueron implantadas en ratones han demostrado que la activación anormal de cuatro genes hace que el cáncer de mama se disemine a los pulmones.
Researchers have established how the structure of receptors on the surface of T cells enables them to recognize both self and foreign cells.
New research has revealed what keeps animals' internal clocks running on time through the long nights of winter and the long days of summer.
Although mice typically view the world with a limited color palette—similar to what some people with red-green color blindness see—scientists have transformed their vision by introducing a single human gene.
Aunque los ratones típicamente ven el mundo con una gama de colores limitada—similar a lo que ven algunas personas con acromatopsia al rojo y verde—unos científicos han transformado su visión al introducir un único gen humano.
Identifying the presence of multiple lineages of HIV can greatly improve the accuracy of genetic analyses designed to pinpoint regions of the viral genome that are important for recognition by T cells.
La identificación de la presencia de linajes múltiples del VIH puede mejorar mucho la precisión de los análisis genéticos diseñados para identificar regiones del genoma viral que son importantes para el reconocimiento por parte de las células T.
The parasite responsible for African sleeping sickness has a fatal response to stress.
Researchers report that the first detailed images of an elusive drug target on the outer wall of bacteria may aid design of novel antibiotics.
Investigadores publican las primeras imágenes detalladas de un blanco de drogas evasivo en la pared externa de bacterias que podría ayudar en el diseño de antibióticos nuevos.
Settling a century-old debate, HHMI researchers have shown for the first time how plants decide to grow.
Terminando con un antiguo debate, investigadores del HHMI han demostrado claramente y por primera vez cómo las plantas deciden crecer.
HHMI researchers identify a genetic mutation that causes early onset coronary artery disease.
Investigadores del HHMI identifican una mutación genética que causa enfermedad arterial coronaria de inicio temprano.
Researchers have developed a fruitfly model that replicates the genetic instability seen in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases.
Scientists have recorded the action involved in assembling telomerase, an enzyme used by cells to protect their genes during the potentially dangerous process of DNA replication.
Sometimes it helps to have a "cheat sheet" when you are working on a problem as difficult as deciphering the relationships among hundreds of thousands of genes.
HHMI researchers map the fine details of the many chromosomal breaks and rearrangements that have reshaped the white-cheeked gibbon's genome.
Adult stem cells call the shots when it comes to their daughters' destinies.
New data suggest that 40-50 percent of human and mouse genes have alternative promoters.
Nuevos datos sugieren que entre el 40 y 50 por ciento de los genes humanos y de ratón tienen promotores alternativos.
Researchers have constructed a protein out of amino acids not found in natural proteins, forming a complex, stable structure that closely resembles a natural protein.
Healthy and viable mice that survive until adulthood have, for the first time, been cloned from adult stem cells.
Por primera, vez ratones sanos y viables que alcanzan la adultez han sido clonados a partir de células troncales adultas.
Precise protein targeting allows cells to build cell-to -cell junctions in the right place.
Changes in an enzyme known to be vital to the body's energy levels may lead to a decreasing ability to stave off diabetes as we get older.
A protein that captures light in ocean-dwelling bacteria puts light's energy to work inside cells.
A drug that keeps blood pressure under control may offer new hope for patients with muscular dystrophy.
HHMI researchers have now found one clue that may tell them why the liver is a master of regeneration.
Investigadores del HHMI han encontrado una pista que podría decirles por qué el hígado es un experto en regeneración.
Researchers have identified a family of proteins that contributes to the survival and regenerative potential of blood-forming stem cells.
Investigadores descubren una familia de proteínas que contribuye a la supervivencia y al potencial regenerador de las células troncales de formación de sangre.
HHMI researchers have reactivated the p53 gene in mice, causing blood, bone and liver tumors to self destruct.
A team led by an HHMI international research scholar has identified a new genetic risk factor associated with the most common form of Alzheimer's disease.
Researchers learn how a set of enzymes contorts itself during the molecular relay race involved in tagging proteins.
Genetically altered mice are helping scientists illuminate the fundamentals of biological clocks.
Researchers have designed a laboratory about the size of a quarter that is capable of conducting thousands of experiments simultaneously.
HHMI scientists are making 'chemical factories' that help laboratory animals produce resveratrol -- the compound behind red wine's frequently touted health benefits.
Scientists can turn on or block regeneration in zebrafish with the flip of a molecular switch.
Researchers have learned how the immune system slices and dices genes so B cells can program antibodies to seek out and destroy invaders.
Two HHMI research teams have discovered new information about how the botulinum neurotoxin shuts down neurons with deadly efficiency.
HHMI researchers discover a line of communication that helps hair follicles organize and align themselves into a well ordered pattern.
Scientists discover a new place to search for the factors that cause neurons to sprout connections.
After five years, some 95 percent of study participants have survived the cancer due to treatment with Gleevec.
P[acman], a new tool for inserting large genes into precise locations on the chromosome, may enable researchers to overcome challenges in pinning down the function of genes.
New research shows that at least 10 percent of genes in the human population can vary in the number of copies of DNA sequences they contain—a finding that alters current thinking that the DNA of any two humans is 99.9 percent identical in content and identity.
Nuevo estudio muestra que al menos el 10 por ciento de los genes de la población humana puede tener un número distinto de copias de secuencias de ADN –descubrimiento que modifica la idea actual de que el ADN de dos seres humanos cualesquiera es un 99.9 por ciento similar en contenido e identidad–.
New findings hint that dendritic spines could make the human brain a far more efficient learning machine than that of other animals.
Analyzing the machinery a roundworm uses to repress genes on an entire chromosome reveals surprising principles about gene regulation.
Here is a list of research institutions that qualify for the 2007 competition.
Brief summaries of the research carried out by the 12 patient-oriented researchers selected by HHMI in 2002
HHMI announces new national competition to appoint outstanding physician-scientists as HHMI investigators. The Institute expects to select approximately 15 new researchers by Fall 2007 and is committing approximately $200 million to their first term of appointment.
Researchers have created a map of the protein landscape that regulates a stem cell's ability to differentiate into multiple types of mature cells.
HHMI researchers and their colleagues developed a systematic method for speeding up the crystallization of proteins, an advance that may greatly aid x-ray crystallography.
A new study suggests that human evolution was not just a matter of spontaneous advantageous mutations arising within the human lineage.
HHMI researchers have created a map that helps explain how the brain generates the assortment of specialized proteins it needs to process information.
A newly identified gene mutation helps explain a subset of cases of osteogenesis imperfecta.
By turning on a single gene, researchers can prevent skin stem cells from maturing into the three types of adult skin cells.
Now that clinical trials have shown ranibizumab's "miraculous" effects on patients' eyesight, a crucial next step is to compare ranibizumab to a related drug, which is less than ten times the cost.
HHMI investigator Craig Mello of the University of Massachusetts Medical School and Stanford researcher Andrew Fire honored for discovery of RNA interference.
El investigador del HHMI Craig C. Mello, de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Massachussets, y el investigador de Stanford, Andrew Fire, fueron honrados por el descubrimiento de la interferencia de ARN.
A structural protein can determine whether an insect develops the highly organized, light-harvesting eye of a fly.
Some infectious diseases might run in families because susceptibility to them is inherited.
An HHMI international research scholar in Israel has discovered one reason why so-called "flesh-eating" bacteria are so hard to stop.
Algunas enfermedades infecciosas podrían presentarse en ciertas familias porque se hereda la susceptibilidad a las mismas.
Un becario internacional de investigación del HHMI en Israel ha descubierto una razón por la que es tan difícil detener a una bacteria llamada “comedora de carne”.
Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator Jack W. Szostak at Massachusetts General Hospital, Carol W. Greider of Johns Hopkins University and Elizabeth H. Blackburn of the University of California, San Francisco, have been awarded the 2006 Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research.
HHMI researchers have found that a typical breast or colorectal tumor results from mutations in about 90 genes.
A single molecular switch plays a central role in inducing stem cells in the brain, pancreas, and blood to lose function as they age.
A study of sperm formation in worms may point toward a major cause of infertility in humans.
Experimental work has led to the first mathematical model of a regulatory circuit that blood-forming stem cells use to decide what kind of white blood cell they will become.
Research teams have collaborated to identify the cells and receptor responsible for processing sour taste in mammals.
Children with Loeys-Dietz syndrome should be considered early candidates for surgery to prevent lethal rupture of the aorta.
Scientists working at the epicenter of the South African AIDS epidemic have discovered how HIV "exhausts" killer T cells that would otherwise attack the virus.
Científicos que trabajaban en el epicentro de la epidemia del SIDA en Sudáfrica han descubierto cómo el VIH “agota” a las células T asesinas, que de otra manera atacarían al virus.
HHMI scientists discover a human DNA sequence that has evolved rapidly since humans diverged from their closest evolutionary relatives.
Proteins can wreak havoc in the brain even when the genes that encode them are perfectly normal.
New technique images cellular proteins with near-molecular resolution.
A detailed view of a smallpox enzyme opens the way to developing the first drugs against virus.
Using real-time imaging to track malaria infection in live mice, researchers have discovered one of malaria's sneakiest tricks.
Usando procesamiento de imágenes en tiempo real para detectar infecciones palúdicas en ratones vivos, unos investigadores han descubierto uno de los trucos más ocultos del parásito de la malaria.
Scientists have identified a key enzyme that the dengue virus uses to replicate, triggering the potentially fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever.
Científicos identifican una enzima clave que el virus del dengue utiliza para replicarse, lo que activa la potencialmente fatal fiebre hemorrágica del dengue.
A new drug target could defeat HIV's rapid evolution, its main mechanism of drug resistance.
Nuevo blanco de ataque de drogas podría derrotar la rápida evolución del VIH, su mecanismo principal de resistencia a drogas.
Researchers have discovered a critical function for a protein involved in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the number one genetic killer of children under the age of two.
New research indicates that drugs that target a cell growth pathway called the JAK-STAT pathway are likely to be effective against certain chronic leukemias.
Researchers analyze proteins to find cancer-causing mutations.
A natural chemical may yield a prime target for novel cholesterol-lowering drugs and the blueprint for a new generation of antibiotics.
A single genetic mutation contributes to a lifesaving color variation in Florida beach mice.
Researchers have identified a protein that could aid development of methods to grow skin to treat patients.