Free Resources for Science Education


More About VEGF

VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) is a signaling molecule that binds to receptors on blood vessels. The binding VEGF to the receptors signals the blood vessels to sprout and elongate toward the source of the VEGF. Tumors release VEGF, stimulating the development of their own blood supply thus supporting their further growth.

VEGF Background

Knowing the genetic path that a particular cancer follows could someday help physicians better treat individual patients. By determining the genetic defects responsible for a specific cancer, physicians might be able to select the therapy that will be most effective at eliminating that cancer. Furthermore, each cancer-causing gene that researchers identify can serve as a target for the development of more specific therapies that will wipe out cancer cells while leaving healthy cells unharmed.

From lecture 2 of the 2003 Holiday Lectures Series "Learning From Patients: The Science of Medicine."

VEGF Teaching Tips

The animations in this section have a wide variety of classroom applications. Use the tips below to get started but look for more specific teaching tips in the near future. Please tell us how you are using the animations in your classroom by sending e-mail to

  1. Use the animations to make abstract scientific ideas visible and concrete.

  2. Explain important scientific principles through the animations. For example, the biological clocks animations can be used to demonstrate the fundamentals of transcription and translation.

  3. Make sure that students learn the material by repeating sections of the animations as often as you think necessary to reinforce underlying scientific principles. You can start, restart, and play back sections of the animations.

  4. Urge students to use the animations in accordance with their own learning styles. Students who are more visually oriented can watch the animations first and read the text later, while others might prefer to read the explanations first and then view the graphics.

  5. Incorporate the animations into Web-based learning modules that you create to supplement your classroom curricula.

  6. Encourage students to incorporate the animations into their own Web-based projects.


The 2003 Holiday Lectures Series "Learning From Patients: The Science of Medicine."

VEGF Credits

Director: Dennis Liu, Ph.D.

Scientific Direction: Bert Vogelstein, M.D.

Scientific Content: Satoshi Amagai, Ph.D.

Animator: Chris Vargas

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Bulletin Article