Having too many chromosomes can lead to too much gene expression. If a male and a female have a different number of X chromosomes, a dosage-compensation mechanism is necessary to equalize the level of gene expression. In human females who have two X chromosomes, one X chromosome in each cell is inactive, while in C. elegans hermaphrodites, the activity of both X chromosomes is reduced by half. Dr. Meyer explains how the gene that controls dosage compensation in C. elegans works. Some genes involved in dosage compensation also have a role in cell division.