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  • Repellant ephrin signals guide limb innervations

    Repellant ephrin signals guide limb innervations

    Animation

    (1 min 34 sec) The growth cone of a neuron avoids repellant molecules and navigates to innervate the appropriate muscle.

  • Signal molecules trigger transcription factors

    Signal molecules trigger transcription factors

    Animation

    (2 min 4 sec) Varying concentrations of a signaling molecule activate different transcription factors and determine cell fate.

  • Classroom Activities: Stem Cells and Diabetes

    Classroom Activities: Stem Cells and Diabetes

    Activity

    To accompany the lecture series Potent Biology: Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regeneration.

  • Coaxing Embryonic Stem Cells

    Coaxing Embryonic Stem Cells

    Lecture

    (58 min 25 sec) In cloning, a cell's genetic machinery is reprogrammed. Can we similarly coax stem cells to become specific cell types?

  • Understanding Embryonic Stem Cells

    Understanding Embryonic Stem Cells

    Lecture

    (58 min 27 sec) An overview of embryonic development, the progressive differentiation of cells, and properties of embryonic stem cells.

  • Potent Biology: Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regeneration

    Potent Biology: Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regeneration

    Lecture

    Doug Melton and Nadia Rosenthal are leaders in stem cell research, working primarily with mouse and human tissue. They will discuss where embryonic and adult stem cells come from and the biology of how they supply the cells the body needs.

  • Planarian Regeneration and Stem Cells

    Planarian Regeneration and Stem Cells

    Scientists at Work

    (11 min 47 sec) A mini-documentary discussing the remarkable regenerative capabilities of the planarian, and how HHMI researcher Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado uses them to study the biology of stem cells.

  • Human Embryonic Development

    Human Embryonic Development

    Animation

    (2 min 18 sec) Human embryonic development depends on stem cells. During the course of development, cells divide, migrate, and specialize. Early in development, a group of cells called the inner cell mass (ICM) forms. These cells are able to produce all the tissues of the body. Later in development, during gastrulation, the three germ layers form, and most cells become more restricted in the types of cells that they can produce.

  • Differentiation and the Fate of Cells

    Differentiation and the Fate of Cells

    Animation

    (1 min 29 sec) As a human embryo develops, its cells become progressively restricted in the types of specialized cells that they can produce. Inner cell mass (ICM) cells of the blastocyst can make any type of body cell. Gastrula-stage cells can give rise to the cells of a given germ layer. Later, cells become even more restricted. For example, the pancreatic bud of the endoderm layer can only make the cells of the pancreas.

  • Cytoplasmic Factors

    Cytoplasmic Factors

    Animation

    (57 sec) Cytoplasmic factors play a significant part in determining how a cell develops. This segment discusses their importance in turning the appropriate genes on and off for proper development.

  • Creating Embryonic Stem Cell Lines

    Creating Embryonic Stem Cell Lines

    Animation

    (1 min 38 sec) The inner cell mass (ICM) cells of blastocyst-stage early human embryos can be removed and cultured. These cells can be grown in the lab indefinitely. Various growth factors cause these cells to develop into a variety of differentiated cells, such as muscle or nerve cells.

  • Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Animation

    Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Animation

    Animation

    (52 sec) Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique for cloning. The nucleus is removed from a healthy egg. This egg becomes the host for a nucleus that is transplanted from another cell, such as a skin cell. The resulting embryo can be used to generate embryonic stem cells with a genetic match to the nucleus donor (therapeutic cloning), or can be implanted into a surrogate mother to create a cloned individual, such as Dolly the sheep (reproductive cloning).

  • Classroom Activities: Gene Switches

    Classroom Activities: Gene Switches

    Activity

    To accompany the lecture series Evolution: Constant Change and Common Threads.

  • Pitx1 Expression

    Pitx1 Expression

    Animation

    (55 sec) In the stickleback fish, pelvic-fin reduction resulted from changes in the regulatory switch elements of the Pitx1 gene. In the marine ancestor, the Pitx1 gene is activated in the pelvic-fin region during development to generate the fin. In the pelvic-reduced stickleback, the regulatory switch that normally turns on the Pitx1 gene is either missing or non-functional.

  • Rett Syndrome

    Rett Syndrome

    Clip

    (2 min 52 sec) Dr. Zoghbi introduces the topic of Rett syndrome by showing how development usually progresses in a young girl. She then shows an excerpt from Silent Angels, introduced by Julia Roberts, which shows how Rett syndrome affects development.

  • X Inactivation

    X Inactivation

    Animation

    (55 sec) This animation shows how the random deactivation of one of the X chromosomes in a pair can lead to a mozaicism in the expression genes. 

  • Deciphering the Language of Sex

    Deciphering the Language of Sex

    Lecture

    (58 min 51 sec) Is it a boy or a girl? Dr. David Page looks at how we define male and female and summarizes the development of human sex characteristics.

  • Sperm Motility

    Sperm Motility

    Clip

    (21 sec) Video microscopy of sperm motility in an average human male and an infertile male.

  • Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)

    Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)

    Clip

    (1 min 16 sec) Video microscopy demonstrating how sperm from an infertile male can be injected into a female egg.

  • From Fertilization to Egg Laying in C. elegans

    From Fertilization to Egg Laying in C. elegans

    Clip

    (1 min 12 sec) Video of the fertilization of the C. elegans oocyte, the fusion of the egg and sperm nuclei, and the egg laying.

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