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  • Genetic engineering

    Genetic engineering


    (1 min 13 sec) A new gene can be inserted into a loop of bacterial DNA called a plasmid. This is done by cutting the plasmid DNA with a restriction enzyme, which allows a new piece of DNA to be inserted. The ends of the new piece of DNA are stitched together by an enzyme called DNA ligase. The genetically engineered bacteria will now manufacture any protein coded by genes on the newly inserted DNA.

  • Teacher Guide: Holiday Lectures on Science - 1999

    Teacher Guide: Holiday Lectures on Science - 1999

    Teacher Guide

    A guide written for teachers to accompany the 1999 Holiday Lectures on Science.

  • Test Your Knowledge of Microbes

    Test Your Knowledge of Microbes

    Click & Learn

    Take this quiz to see how well you understand some of the topics covered in the 1999 Holiday Lectures on infectious disease.

  • Bacterial Identification Virtual Lab

    Bacterial Identification Virtual Lab

    Virtual Lab

    This virtual lab will familiarize you with the science and techniques used to identify different types of bacteria based on their DNA sequences.

  • Outwitting Bacteria's Wily Ways

    Outwitting Bacteria's Wily Ways


    (58 min 54 sec) Dr. Finlay showcases three types of bacteria to illustrate how molecular biology is allowing researchers to probe the molecular workings of bacterial infections.

  • The Microbes Strike Back

    The Microbes Strike Back


    (58 min 35 sec) Dr. Brett Finlay explains why bacterial diseases continue to be a major health problem worldwide, causing a third of the world's deaths every year.

  • 2000 and Beyond: Confronting the Microbe Menace

    2000 and Beyond: Confronting the Microbe Menace


    (57 min 36 sec) In four presentations, Donald E. Ganem, MD, and B. Brett Finlay, PhD, discuss the latest advances in understanding how pathogens invade the body and how this knowledge is leading to the development of new therapies. They also explain how new infectious diseases are recognized and how epidemics arise.

  • Virulence Injection Simulation

    Virulence Injection Simulation


    (2 min 1 sec) Using a bagel, a syringe, and blue dye to illustrate how some virulent strains of bacteria inject virulence factors into a cell.

  • Size Analogies of Bacteria and Viruses

    Size Analogies of Bacteria and Viruses


    (1 min 44 sec) Dr. Finlay and Dr. Richard Ganem use physical analogies to compare the size of bacteria and viruses relative to a standard mammalian cell.

  • Penicillin acting on bacteria

    Penicillin acting on bacteria


    (34 sec) Penicillin, as shown in this video, causes the cell walls of bacteria to rupture.

  • Salmonella Video

    Salmonella Video


    (38 sec) Salmonella are a common bacteria associated with food poisoning. Dr. Finlay shows live Salmonella under the microscope to demonstrate how far and fast they can move.

  • Listeria Video

    Listeria Video


    (1 min 8 sec) This microscope video shows how live Listeria move via actin filaments in an infected cell.

  • Salmonella Infection Demonstration

    Salmonella Infection Demonstration


    (1 min 21 sec) Dr. Finlay and another student volunteer illustrate how Salmonella infects a cell, using a marble, plastic wrap, and some yellow gelatin.

  • Listeria Infection Demonstration

    Listeria Infection Demonstration


    (1 min 5 sec) Dr. Finlay and a student volunteer show how Listeria infects a cell, using a marble and some yellow gelatin.

  • Cheek Cells and Bacteria

    Cheek Cells and Bacteria


    (1 min 28 sec) Dr. Brett Finlay enlists a student volunteer to show the surprisingly high amount of bacteria found in his own mouth.

  • Bacterial Growth

    Bacterial Growth


    (54 sec) Dr. Brett Finlay shows how bacteria can grow rapidly to incredible numbers, and also explains what limits this explosive growth.

  • E. coli Infection Strategy

    E. coli Infection Strategy


    (2 min 53 sec) Watch this animation to see the molecular tricks that an infectious strain of Escherichia coli uses to infect your gut.

  • Bacterial Conjugation

    Bacterial Conjugation


    (23 sec) Bacteria can transfer genetic material, and thus drug resistance, to other bacteria via conjugation.

  • Intracellular Infection by Salmonella

    Intracellular Infection by Salmonella


    (1 min 19 sec) In this animation, you can see how one S. typhimurium invades an epithelial cell of the intestinal tract, survives the intracellular defense mechanisms of the host cell, and multiplies.

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