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  • Classroom Activities: Molecular Menagerie

    Classroom Activities: Molecular Menagerie

    Activity

    To accompany the lecture series Scanning Life's Matrix: Genes, Proteins, and Small Molecules.

  • Small-Molecule Diversity

    Small-Molecule Diversity

    Click & Learn

    Small molecules are chemicals that can interact with proteins to affect their functions. Learn about the structure and biological functions of various small molecules like sugar and caffeine.

  • Microarray Manufacturing Technology

    Microarray Manufacturing Technology

    Click & Learn

    How both gene chips and microarray slides are created.

  • Chemical Genomics: New Tools for Medicine

    Chemical Genomics: New Tools for Medicine

    Lecture

    (58 min 29 sec) Scientists now have the ability to create millions of new molecules. How do they test whether any of these molecules are useful?

  • Probing Genes and Genomes

    Probing Genes and Genomes

    Lecture

    (58 min) To understand life's processes, perturb them. How a process responds to an insult can provide clues about normal function or mimic a specific disease state.

  • Scanning Life's Matrix: Genes, Proteins, and Small Molecules

    Scanning Life's Matrix: Genes, Proteins, and Small Molecules

    Lecture

    In four presentations, Stuart L. Schreiber, PhD, and Eric S. Lander, PhD, open a window onto the fast-paced world of genomic science and chemical genetics.

  • Diversity-Oriented Synthesis

    Diversity-Oriented Synthesis

    Clip

    (5 min 42 sec) Diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS) is a strategy used by chemical biologists to create a huge diversity of small molecules with potentially useful properties. A scientist working in Dr. Stuart Schreiber's lab shows us how engineering, computer science, chemisty, and biology are all used in DOS.

  • Furrowstatin

    Furrowstatin

    Clip

    (4 min 41 sec) The small molecule 'furrowstatin' exemplifies the power of using small molecules to investigate life's processes. When applied to dividing cells, the furrowstatin halts cell division.

  • DOS Matrix

    DOS Matrix

    Animation

    (1 min 20 sec) In diversity-oriented synthesis, many combinations of chemical building blocks undergo relatively few reaction steps to form a vast variety of different molecules. In this example, 45 x 45 x 45 combinations yield more than 88,000 novel molecules.

  • Chemspace

    Chemspace

    Animation

    (1 min 35 sec) The hypothetical relationship of chemical space and biological space is plotted on a three-dimensional graph, giving a glimpse of the future direction of research at the intersections of various disciplines.

  • Rapamycin

    Rapamycin

    Animation

    (1 min 10 sec) Rapamycin is a small molecule originally isolated from nature. It has antibiotic and immunosuppressive properties. It also allows two proteins which do not normally interact to bind together in the cell, which causes problems in the nutrient-sensing pathway.

  • Small-Molecule Microarrays

    Small-Molecule Microarrays

    Animation

    (1 min) Microarray technology is useful for screening many small molecules at once. Automated devices have made it possible for thousands of different small molecules to be printed as an array of spots on a glass slide. A single type of protein which has been tagged with a fluorescent marker can then be washed across the array. Any small molecule that binds to the protein can be detected by scanning for spots that are fluorescent.

  • Diversity of Small Molecules

    Diversity of Small Molecules

    Animation

    (1 min 57 sec) A molecular menagerie of small molecules is displayed, with two particular molecules singled out for attention: rapamycin and furrowstatin, which are discussed in the remainder of Dr. Schreiber's lectures on chemical genetics.

  • Using Small Molecules to Modulate a Protein

    Using Small Molecules to Modulate a Protein

    Animation

    This animation illustrates how a small molecule binds to a protein. As a result of the binding, the protein alters its shape and becomes inactivated.

  • Life at the End of the Chromosome: Another RNA Machine

    Life at the End of the Chromosome: Another RNA Machine

    Lecture

    (58 min 20 sec) The chromosome ends, or telomeres, are necessary for DNA stability and replication.

  • How to Accelerate a Reaction 100,000,000,000 Times Using Only RNA

    How to Accelerate a Reaction 100,000,000,000 Times Using Only RNA

    Lecture

    (58 min 29 sec) Studies of RNA catalytic centers have revealed much about their structure and mode of action.

  • RNA as an Enzyme: Discovery, Origins of Life, and Medical Possibilities

    RNA as an Enzyme: Discovery, Origins of Life, and Medical Possibilities

    Lecture

    (58 min 22 sec) Discovery of RNA's catalytic activity led to unexpected spin-offs, including a new scenario for the origin of life.

  • Catalysis: Chemical and Biochemical

    Catalysis: Chemical and Biochemical

    Lecture

    (58 min 25 sec) Cellular enzymes are catalysts that tame reactions by accelerating them, lending specificity, and regulating their time and place.

  • The Double Life of RNA

    The Double Life of RNA

    Lecture

    In four lectures, Nobel laureate Thomas R. Cech, PhD, discusses the ability of RNA to act as more than just an intermediary between DNA and proteins.

  • Mr. Lincoln Glows

    Mr. Lincoln Glows

    Clip

    (4 min 5 sec) Dr. Cech uses a penny and a beaker of acetone to illustrate how a catalyst works.

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