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  • Running a Virochip Experiment

    Running a Virochip Experiment

    Animation

    (2 min 15 sec) A sample is put on a Virochip microarray, and results are compared to databases of all known viral sequences.

  • Exclusion Mapping

    Exclusion Mapping

    Animation

    (32 sec) A useful technique for narrowing down the location of a gene involves comparing the chromosomes of affected siblings. Two sisters with Rett syndrome allow researchers an opportunity to map the most likely location of the gene by excluding areas of the chromosome that are not alike.

  • Shotgun sequencing

    Shotgun sequencing

    Animation

    (1 min) In shotgun sequencing many copies of the entire genome are "blown up" into millions of small fragments. Each small fragment is sequenced. Powerful computers then assemble the individual fragments into the original configuration. Repeat sequences pose a problem for this approach because their sizes can be much larger than the small fragments.

  • Human genome sequencing

    Human genome sequencing

    Animation

    (1 min 49 sec) The public Human Genome Project started by identifying unique marker sequences distributed throughout the genome. Then, many copies of a small section of DNA were randomly cleaved into smaller fragments, and each small fragment was sequenced. Because there were originally many copies of the DNA in question, many fragments represented the same part of the genome. These were aligned by identifying overlapping regions of the sequence, and then they were assembled into the original DNA.

  • Gene Chip Manufacturing

    Gene Chip Manufacturing

    Animation

    (1 min 57 sec) Gene chips, also called DNA microarrays, have a broad range of applications in current research, including enabling researchers to measure the activity of thousands of genes simultaneously. Dr. Eric Lander describes the process used to manufacture gene chips.