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  • Shotgun sequencing

    Shotgun sequencing

    Animation

    (1 min) In shotgun sequencing many copies of the entire genome are "blown up" into millions of small fragments. Each small fragment is sequenced. Powerful computers then assemble the individual fragments into the original configuration. Repeat sequences pose a problem for this approach because their sizes can be much larger than the small fragments.

  • Human genome sequencing

    Human genome sequencing

    Animation

    (1 min 49 sec) The public Human Genome Project started by identifying unique marker sequences distributed throughout the genome. Then, many copies of a small section of DNA were randomly cleaved into smaller fragments, and each small fragment was sequenced. Because there were originally many copies of the DNA in question, many fragments represented the same part of the genome. These were aligned by identifying overlapping regions of the sequence, and then they were assembled into the original DNA.

  • Gene Chip Manufacturing

    Gene Chip Manufacturing

    Animation

    (1 min 57 sec) Gene chips, also called DNA microarrays, have a broad range of applications in current research, including enabling researchers to measure the activity of thousands of genes simultaneously. Dr. Eric Lander describes the process used to manufacture gene chips.

  • Molecular Screening

    Molecular Screening

    Animation

    (38 sec) After a chemical biologist has made many novel small molecules by diversity-oriented synthesis, the next step is to find those that are useful. Molecules need to be "screened." Conceptually, screening is like using proteins as a custom filter to catch potentially useful small molecules.