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  • The LUX operon controls light production

    The LUX operon controls light production

    Animation

    (2 min 25 sec) A single transcription factor controls this operon, which contains five genes necessary to produce bioluminescence.

  • The molecular cascade in bacterial quorum sensing

    The molecular cascade in bacterial quorum sensing

    Animation

    (3 min 20 sec) Quorum sensing regulates gene expression by a protein phosphorylation cascade that controls transcription.

  • Genetic engineering

    Genetic engineering

    Animation

    (1 min 13 sec) A new gene can be inserted into a loop of bacterial DNA called a plasmid. This is done by cutting the plasmid DNA with a restriction enzyme, which allows a new piece of DNA to be inserted. The ends of the new piece of DNA are stitched together by an enzyme called DNA ligase. The genetically engineered bacteria will now manufacture any protein coded by genes on the newly inserted DNA.

  • E. coli Infection Strategy

    E. coli Infection Strategy

    Animation

    (2 min 53 sec) Watch this animation to see the molecular tricks that an infectious strain of Escherichia coli uses to infect your gut.

  • Bacterial Conjugation

    Bacterial Conjugation

    Animation

    (23 sec) Bacteria can transfer genetic material, and thus drug resistance, to other bacteria via conjugation.

  • Intracellular Infection by Salmonella

    Intracellular Infection by Salmonella

    Animation

    (1 min 19 sec) In this animation, you can see how one S. typhimurium invades an epithelial cell of the intestinal tract, survives the intracellular defense mechanisms of the host cell, and multiplies.