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  • Seeing Single Molecules Move

    Seeing Single Molecules Move

    Animation

    (1 min 40 sec) Single-molecule analysis using super-resolution microscopes reveals that transcription factors are not usually found bound to their binding sites on DNA.

  • Triplet code

    Triplet code

    Animation

    (1 min 8 sec) Once the structure of DNA was discovered, the next challenge was determining how the sequence of letters coded for the 20 amino acids. In theory, one or two letters can only code for 4 or 16 amino acids, respectively. A scheme using three letters, a triplet code, is the minimum necessary to encode for all the amino acids.

  • DNA packaging

    DNA packaging

    Animation

    (1 min 44 sec) DNA is tightly packed in the nucleus of every cell. DNA wraps around special proteins called histones, which form loops of DNA called nucleosomes. These nucleosomes coil and stack together to form fibers called chromatin. Chromatin in turn forms larger loops and coils to form chromosomes.