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PosterThis classroom poster illustrates Robert Paine’s pioneering experiment that demonstrated the importance of top-down regulation of ecological communities by predators and led to his coining of the term keystone species.
Film GuideThe following classroom-ready resources complement the film Some Animals Are More Equal Than Others: Trophic Cascades and Keystone Species. It tells the story of the bold experiments by Robert Paine and James Estes, which established the importance of keystone species in regulating ecological communities and the cascades of effects set in motion by their removal.
Short Film(19 min 29 sec) Keystone species and trophic cascades are fundamental concepts in ecology. This short film tells the story of how these concepts were first established through the pioneering experiments of two young researchers: Robert Paine and James Estes.
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