This "morph" animation demonstrates how the expression of a particular toolkit gene in a butterfly larva corresponds to the location of the wing eyespots in an adult butterfly.
This animation demonstrates how cancerous cells could be destroyed using a modified virus.
Quorum sensing regulates gene expression by a protein phosphorylation cascade that controls transcription.
The PPAR-gamma receptor activates certain genes in a fat cell, resulting in the storage of fat and changes in hormone levels.
A 3D animation showing the molecule p53 binds to DNA and initiates the transcription of mRNA.
This animation shows how the protein MECP2, in conjuction with another protein complex, can act as an "on-off' switch for gene expression.
This animation shows the molecular interactions involved in the negative feedback loop responsible for circadian rhythms in mammals.
How a cell infected by a virus signals cytotoxic T lymphocytes to kill the cell before the virus replicates and spreads.
Cytoplasmic factors play a significant part in determining how a cell develops. This segment discusses their importance in turning the appropriate genes on and off for proper development.
Dengue virus has sophisticated mechanisms for entering a cell, for replicating its RNA genome, and for translating proteins.
General transcription factors, activators, and repressors interact to regulate the transcription of eukaryotic DNA into RNA.
Once a gene has been transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA), it is edited in a process called splicing. Noncoding regions called introns are removed, leaving protein-coding regions called exons.
The first phase of the process of reading DNA information to make proteins starts with a molecule unzipping the DNA. The molecule then copies one of the strands of DNA into a strand of RNA, a close cousin of DNA. This process is called transcription.
The process of copying DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA) is called transcription. Transcription factors assemble at the promoter region of a gene, bringing an RNA polymerase enzyme to form the transcription initiation complex. Activator proteins at the enhancer region of DNA then activate the...
The ribosome is a molecular factory that translates the genetic information in RNA into a string of amino acids that becomes a protein. Inside the ribosome, the genetic code of the RNA is read three letters at a time and compared with the corresponding code on a transfer molecule. When a match...
Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries DNA's genetic information to the ribosome, where it is translated into a sequence of amino acids. mRNA is fed into the ribosome, and it is positioned so that it can be read in groups of three letters, known as codons. Each mRNA codon is matched against the transfer...
Watch these animations display the dynamic orchestration of the molecular events of the Drosophila biological clock.
A single transcription factor controls this operon, which contains five genes necessary to produce bioluminescence.