Electrical and chemical signals are used by neurons to communicate with one another at contact points called synapses.
The fetal brain grows enormously during pregnancy, both in terms of its size and the number of neurons it has.
Late LTP (long-term memory) involves dopamine activation of CREB to support new synaptic growth.
Early LTP (short-term memory) depends on a calcium-dependent protein kinase to strengthen an existing synapse.
Short-term memory relies on serotonin activating a protein kinase to modify existing synaptic strength.
Long-term memory requires the activation of CREB, turning on specific genes that support new synaptic growth.
Neurons in the cortical area 5 are active when a cat is straddling an obstacle.
The growth cone of a neuron avoids repellant molecules and navigates to innervate the appropriate muscle.
Varying concentrations of a signaling molecule activate different transcription factors and determine cell fate.