Reconstructing past continental plate movements reveals the island of Spitsbergen was tropical 500 million years ago.
The breakup of a supercontinent into several smaller continents explains the distribution of fossil and geologic evidence.
An early model of continental drift proposed that parts of continental plates can sink into the mantle, allowing for movement.
An early continental drift model proposed that mantle convection can produce continental movement and new plate formation.
Sunlight that warms Earth is re-emitted as infrared radiation, which is absorbed by greenhouse gases and causes further warming.
CO2 emitted by volcanoes into the atmosphere is removed by a...
Arctic sea ice melted on an unprecedented scale in 2012, opening up the fabled Northwest and Northeast passages.
Plate tectonics is the unifying theory of Earth science.