Aplysia californica is a marine snail with a simple nervous system suitable for research on learning and memory.
A touch to the Aplysia's siphon causes a gill withdrawal, a simple reflex for studying memory.
A live recording of muscle activity from Dr. Jessell's biceps and triceps muscles.
Even when distracted by food, the cat's brain encodes and retains the location of an obstacle.
Dr. Jessell's leg muscle activation patterns are recorded during walking.
A patient can both comprehend and articulate language, but cannot verbalize what is a clear idea in her mind.
A growth cone contacts a repellant molecule on another axon, collapses, and withdraws.
The growth cones of two neurons sense and interact with one another.
In the absence of proprioceptive feedback, some individuals can compensate by using visual feedback.
Electrical activity recorded from the leg muscles reveals different patterns of activation during different gaits.
Retinal axons travel across the brain, reading navigation cues, to find appropriate targets.
Mice can be trained to use spatial cues to navigate a maze that tests their ability to remember specific locations.
Kangaroo-like hopping when spinal cord excitatory interneurons cross the midline to stimulate both sides.
Dr. Kandel illustrates the practice of the now-debunked theory of phrenology.
The average person has no difficulty raising a coffee mug.
Genetically engineered mice lacking proprioceptive sensory axons are not capable of well-coordinated walking.
A knee-jerk reflex depends on a simple circuit of proprioceptive sensory neurons and spinal motor neurons.
A reduction in the level of sonic hedgehog (SHH) gene expression can lead to cyclopia.
Even without visual feedback, we are able to negotiate an obstacle using spatial memory.
Proprioceptive feedback makes it easy to touch one's thumb to one's fingers without looking.
Dr. Harshad Vishwasrao guides you through a collection of images showing neuronal growth and synaptic formation representative of anatomical changes that occur during learning.
In a giraffe's walk, left and right limbs move alternately, while in a kangaroo's hop, opposing limbs move together.
In the absence of proprioception and visual feedback, it is impossible to touch thumb to fingers accurately.
Even though Clive Wearing cannot remember people or events, his piano-playing skills are intact.
Clive Wearing has lost his ability to remember and lives in a perpetual state of having just awoken.