Delivering a single virus to a cell allows the virus to infect the cell, replicate, and give rise to many progeny viruses. These viruses can then infect many neighboring cells.
The geometric structures of viruses are beautiful and can be used, along with genomic information, to identify them.
A visual representation of the U.S. AIDS epidemic from 1981 to 1997. Each dot represents 30 cases.
HIV's reverse transcriptase mistakes AZT for thymidine. Once incorporated, AZT stops reverse transcription.
When two different strains of influenza infect a single cell, their genetic material can mix freely, resulting in a new third strain of influenza.
Dengue virus has sophisticated mechanisms for entering a cell, for replicating its RNA genome, and for translating proteins.
The dengue virus's outer envelope proteins form symmetrical units and overlay the lipid envelope, capsid, and the RNA genome.
Infection begins when the dengue virus uses receptors on an immune cell's surface to gain entry and release its genome.
How HIV infects a cell and replicates itself using reverse transcriptase and the host's cellular machinery.
Adam Barrett describes his seven-drug antiretroviral regimen and the importance of adherence.
Adam Barrett, a nurse who is HIV positive, discusses his first symptoms and the challenges of adhering to a drug regimen.
Charles Runckel, a graduate student in the DeRisi lab, uses the Virochip to examine the mystery of bee colony collapse disorder.
Zinhle Thabethe describes how antiretroviral therapy has changed her life.
Catherine Gaynes, an HIV-positive patients, discusses her HIV diagnosis, how her family reacted, and avoiding HIV infection.
Dr. Beatrice Hahn's research has traced the origin of HIV to chimpanzees in Cameroon.
Dr. Beatrice Hahn discusses how HIV originated in Africa by cross-species transmission from chimpanzees to humans.
To prevent mosquitoes from spreading diseases, it's essential to understand their life cycle.
Reggaeton, a popular Latin music form, rallies against dengue.
Dr. Finlay and Dr. Richard Ganem use physical analogies to compare the size of bacteria and viruses relative to a standard mammalian cell.
Adam Barrett remembers his symptoms of acute HIV infection.
Watch two leading virus researchers explain how they use both simple and sophisticated technologies to detect and fight infectious agents.
Learn about research aimed at thwarting dengue fever in the lab and in communities.
New technologies like the Virochip harness DNA's properties to identify and fight new viruses.
Understanding the immune response is essential to developing safe vaccines for dengue and other diseases.
The SARS epidemic was successfully halted by a global research effort to identify a new virus.
This discussion from the 2010 Holiday Lectures on Science explores the ethics of genetically-modified organisms and other topics.
Why has it been so hard to develop a vaccine against HIV? How are new medicines revolutionizing AIDS treatment? Can AIDS be cured?
The genesis of AIDS, identifying HIV as the virus that causes AIDS, and the modern global epidemic.
The HIV life cycle, and how the virus destroys the immune system's ability to respond to infection.
Treating HIV infection with antiretroviral therapy, and HIV's ability to develop drug resistance.
The search for an effective HIV vaccine, and advances in genomics that may lead to a breakthrough.
A discussion with three students who are helping in the global fight against HIV and AIDS.
In four presentations, Donald E. Ganem, MD, and B. Brett Finlay, PhD, discuss the latest advances in understanding how pathogens invade the body and how this knowledge is leading to the development of new therapies. They also explain how new infectious diseases are recognized and how epidemics...
Dr. Donald Ganem describes how epidemiologists, physicians, and microbiologists work together to identify and study pathogens.
Dr. Ganem analyses the complex causes of epidemics—how changes in the environment and in human social behavior can give rise to new infectious diseases.
West Nile virus infects mosquitoes, birds, and people—with very different consequences.
Learn about the nature of vector-borne diseases, and the life cycle of the dengue vector mosquito.
Answer interactive questions to explore the logic of the Virochip microarray design, particularly how evolutionary relationships can be used to detect new viruses.
A brief discussion of what makes a virus a retrovirus, and how they differ from other types of viruses.
Problems associated with adherence to antiviral drugs, and a student activity that mimics adherence to a multi-drug regimen.
Take this quiz to see how well you understand some of the topics covered in the 1999 Holiday Lectures on infectious disease.
Topics include: Immunology, HIV immune response and drug development, ELISA, CCR5 co-receptor mutation, vaccine development, dengue fever, and immunological response
A text transcript of the 1999 Holiday Lectures on Science, 2000 and Beyond: Confronting the Microbe Menace.
DVD chapter lists from the 1999 Holiday Lectures on Science, 2000 and Beyond: Confronting the Microbe Menace.
The poster from the 2010 Holiday Lectures, Viral Outbreak: The Science of Emerging Disease, illustrating the size, geometry, and different classifications of viruses.
The poster from the 2007 Holiday Lectures on Science, AIDS: Evolution of an Epidemic. It shows each stage of the HIV life cycle and highlights points in the cycle that have been targeted by anti-retroviral drugs.
Watch our lectures, video extras, and short films via our podcast channel.
A 3D model of dengue virus.
A 3D model of nodamura virus.
A 3D model of rhinovirus, an RNA genome virus that is the main cause of the common cold in humans.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is discovered “hiding” between the cells of the gut.
A 3D model of the dengue virus reveals a shape like a soccer ball with an outer coating of glycoproteins.
Killer T-cells captured in the act of destroying HIV-infected cells.
A germ-spreading sneeze unleashes a shower of large liquid droplets and a moist gas cloud of smaller ones.
The measles virus can spread easily among people who have no immunity against it, as the current outbreak shows.