A sample is put on a Virochip microarray, and results are compared to databases of all known viral sequences.
Delivering a single virus to a cell allows the virus to infect the cell, replicate, and give rise to many progeny viruses. These viruses can then infect many neighboring cells.
The geometric structures of viruses are beautiful and can be used, along with genomic information, to identify them.
A visual representation of the U.S. AIDS epidemic from 1981 to 1997. Each dot represents 30 cases.
In this animation, you can see how one S. typhimurium invades an epithelial cell of the intestinal tract, survives the intracellular defense mechanisms of the host cell, and multiplies.
Protease inhibitors prevent maturation of viral proteins inside HIV particles.
How a cell infected by a virus signals cytotoxic T lymphocytes to kill the cell before the virus replicates and spreads.
Bacteria can transfer genetic material, and thus drug resistance, to other bacteria via conjugation.
Dengue virus has sophisticated mechanisms for entering a cell, for replicating its RNA genome, and for translating proteins.
Since the 1960s dengue fever has spread to many countries and total case numbers have exploded.
The dengue virus's outer envelope proteins form symmetrical units and overlay the lipid envelope, capsid, and the RNA genome.
Infection begins when the dengue virus uses receptors on an immune cell's surface to gain entry and release its genome.
Watch this animation to see the molecular tricks that an infectious strain of Escherichia coli uses to infect your gut.
How HIV infects a cell and replicates itself using reverse transcriptase and the host's cellular machinery.
When a malaria-carrying mosquito bites a human host, the malaria parasite enters the bloodstream, multiplies in the liver cells, and is then released back into the bloodstream, where it infects and destroys red blood cells.
A mosquito becomes infected with malaria when it sucks the blood from an infected human. Once inside the mosquito, the parasites reproduce in the gut and accumulate in the salivary glands, ready to infect another human host with the next bite.
Adam Barrett describes his seven-drug antiretroviral regimen and the importance of adherence.
Adam Barrett, a nurse who is HIV positive, discusses his first symptoms and the challenges of adhering to a drug regimen.
The fight against dengue fever, and the mosquitoes that carry the virus, is being carried out by "brigadistas" in Managua's neighborhoods. Spanish with English subtitles.
Zinhle Thabethe describes how antiretroviral therapy has changed her life.
An interview with Silvia Caballero, an undergraduate who discusses what it's like to be in a lab doing scientific research.
Using tic tac mints as anti-HIV drug stand-ins, students experience the challenges of adhering to an antiretroviral regimen.
A live demonstration of how a rapid antibody-based HIV test works.
Several members of a Nicaraguan research team describe the impact of technology transfer.
An interview with Dr. DeRisi.
Catherine Gaynes, an HIV-positive patients, discusses her HIV diagnosis, how her family reacted, and avoiding HIV infection.
Dr. Michael Gottlieb was the first physician to notice the new disease of AIDS.
Dr. Beatrice Hahn's research has traced the origin of HIV to chimpanzees in Cameroon.
In the effort to eradicate dengue and mosquitoes, neighborhood leaders work with local conditions.
Dr. Beatrice Hahn discusses how HIV originated in Africa by cross-species transmission from chimpanzees to humans.
Dr. Finlay and a student volunteer show how Listeria infects a cell, using a marble and some yellow gelatin.
Dr. Finlay and another student volunteer illustrate how Salmonella infects a cell, using a marble, plastic wrap, and some yellow gelatin.
This microscope video shows how live Listeria move via actin filaments in an infected cell.
Salmonella are a common bacteria associated with food poisoning. Dr. Finlay shows live Salmonella under the microscope to demonstrate how far and fast they can move.
To prevent mosquitoes from spreading diseases, it's essential to understand their life cycle.
Reggaeton, a popular Latin music form, rallies against dengue.
Through the efforts of the Sustainable Sciences Institute, Nicaragua’s research capacity and disease-monitoring tools have improved dramatically.
Many infectious diseases affect people in Nicaragua, and identifying the pathogens is surprisingly difficult.
When parents die of AIDS, the orphans often go to live with a "gogo," the Zulu word for grandmother.
Doctors hope to encourage healers to direct their patients to clinics for TB and AIDS-related diseases.
A glimpse of the TB ward at a South African hospital, illustrating an illness associated with the AIDS epidemic.
A program designed to provide health care and housing to South Africans living in poverty.
Using soccer to teach children how to make important life choices and how to avoid HIV infection.
Dr. Finlay and Dr. Richard Ganem use physical analogies to compare the size of bacteria and viruses relative to a standard mammalian cell.
Katherine Sorber, a graduate student in the DeRisi lab, describes her research on malaria.
Adam Barrett remembers his symptoms of acute HIV infection.
Dr. Finlay, using his student audience, gives a live demonstration of how an antibiotic-resistant strain of tuberculosis managed to spread through the passengers on an airplane.
The Nicaraguan grassroots program teaches mosquito control methods to curb dengue fever epidemics.
Ben Vincent describes his summer work collecting mosquitoes for Dr. Marm Kilpatrick's research on the ecology and epidemiology of the West Nile virus.
Using a bagel, a syringe, and blue dye to illustrate how some virulent strains of bacteria inject virulence factors into a cell.
An interview with Katie Walter, an undergraduate who discusses what it's like to be in a lab doing scientific research.
Watch two leading virus researchers explain how they use both simple and sophisticated technologies to detect and fight infectious agents.
Learn about research aimed at thwarting dengue fever in the lab and in communities.
New technologies like the Virochip harness DNA's properties to identify and fight new viruses.
Understanding the immune response is essential to developing safe vaccines for dengue and other diseases.
The SARS epidemic was successfully halted by a global research effort to identify a new virus.
This discussion from the 2010 Holiday Lectures on Science explores the ethics of genetically-modified organisms and other topics.
Why has it been so hard to develop a vaccine against HIV? How are new medicines revolutionizing AIDS treatment? Can AIDS be cured?
The genesis of AIDS, identifying HIV as the virus that causes AIDS, and the modern global epidemic.
The HIV life cycle, and how the virus destroys the immune system's ability to respond to infection.
Treating HIV infection with antiretroviral therapy, and HIV's ability to develop drug resistance.
The search for an effective HIV vaccine, and advances in genomics that may lead to a breakthrough.
A discussion with three students who are helping in the global fight against HIV and AIDS.
Three HIV-positive individuals share their personal experiences about living with HIV.
In four presentations, Donald E. Ganem, MD, and B. Brett Finlay, PhD, discuss the latest advances in understanding how pathogens invade the body and how this knowledge is leading to the development of new therapies. They also explain how new infectious diseases are recognized and how epidemics...
Dr. Donald Ganem describes how epidemiologists, physicians, and microbiologists work together to identify and study pathogens.
Dr. Brett Finlay explains why bacterial diseases continue to be a major health problem worldwide, causing a third of the world's deaths every year.
Dr. Finlay showcases three types of bacteria to illustrate how molecular biology is allowing researchers to probe the molecular workings of bacterial infections.
Dr. Ganem analyses the complex causes of epidemics—how changes in the environment and in human social behavior can give rise to new infectious diseases.
West Nile virus infects mosquitoes, birds, and people—with very different consequences.
Learn about the nature of vector-borne diseases, and the life cycle of the dengue vector mosquito.
A brief discussion of what makes a virus a retrovirus, and how they differ from other types of viruses.
Problems associated with adherence to antiviral drugs, and a student activity that mimics adherence to a multi-drug regimen.
Take this quiz to see how well you understand some of the topics covered in the 1999 Holiday Lectures on infectious disease.
To accompany the lecture series Viral Outbreak: The Science of Emerging Disease.
To accompany the lecture series AIDS: Evolution of an Epidemic. In this activity, you simulate taking HIV antiretroviral drugs by using tic tac mints and Kool-Aid packets.
A text transcript of the 2010 Holiday Lectures on Science, Viral Outbreak: The Science of Emerging Disease.
A text transcript of the 2007 Holiday Lectures on Science, AIDS: Evolution of an Epidemic.
A text transcript of the 1999 Holiday Lectures on Science, 2000 and Beyond: Confronting the Microbe Menace.
A chapter list to accompany the DVD.
DVD chapter lists from the 1999 Holiday Lectures on Science, 2000 and Beyond: Confronting the Microbe Menace.
A chapter list to accompany the DVD.
The poster from the 2010 Holiday Lectures, Viral Outbreak: The Science of Emerging Disease, illustrating the size, geometry, and different classifications of viruses.
A wide overview of the immune system, presented by HHMI investigators John W. Kappler, PhD, and Philippa Marrack, PhD
Some organisms have evolved ways of evading or subverting the body's defenses.
Learn about the science and techniques used to identify different types of bacteria based on their DNA sequences
Interactively explore topics in biology with the Click and Learn app. Now available from the Apple App Store,...
Watch our lectures, video extras, and short films via our podcast channel.
A guide written for teachers to accompany the 1999 Holiday Lectures on Science.
In this activity, students rear mosquitoes in chambers and test variables that might affect the life cycle of the mosquito.
Are you a vector or a host? Play the West Nile virus game to learn how the virus spreads and how the outcome changes depending on who gets infected.
A 3D model of dengue virus.
A 3D model of nodamura virus.
A 3D model of rhinovirus, an RNA genome virus that is the main cause of the common cold in humans.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is discovered “hiding” between the cells of the gut.
Topics include: Immunology, HIV immune response and drug development, ELISA, CCR5 co-receptor mutation, vaccine development, dengue fever, and immunological response