Varying concentrations of a signaling molecule activate different transcription factors and determine cell fate.
The growth cone of a neuron avoids repellant molecules and navigates to innervate the appropriate muscle.
Neurons in the cortical area 5 are active when a cat is straddling an obstacle.
Electrical and chemical signals are used by neurons to communicate with one another at contact points called synapses.
Long-term memory requires the activation of CREB, turning on specific genes that support new synaptic growth.
Short-term memory relies on serotonin activating a protein kinase to modify existing synaptic strength.
The fetal brain grows enormously during pregnancy, both in terms of its size and the number of neurons it has.
Early LTP (short-term memory) depends on a calcium-dependent protein kinase to strengthen an existing synapse.
Late LTP (long-term memory) involves dopamine activation of CREB to support new synaptic growth.
Aplysia californica is a marine snail with a simple nervous system suitable for research on learning and memory.
A touch to the Aplysia's siphon causes a gill withdrawal, a simple reflex for studying memory.
A live recording of muscle activity from Dr. Jessell's biceps and triceps muscles.
Even when distracted by food, the cat's brain encodes and retains the location of an obstacle.
Dr. Jessell's leg muscle activation patterns are recorded during walking.
A patient can both comprehend and articulate language, but cannot verbalize what is a clear idea in her mind.
A growth cone contacts a repellant molecule on another axon, collapses, and withdraws.
The growth cones of two neurons sense and interact with one another.
An interview with Dr. Adam Hantman, a post-doctoral student in Thomas Jessell's lab.
An interview with Tessa Hirschfeld-Stoler, a lab technician in Eric Kandel's lab.
In the absence of proprioceptive feedback, some individuals can compensate by using visual feedback.
An interview with Dr. Jessell.
Electrical activity recorded from the leg muscles reveals different patterns of activation during different gaits.
An interview with Dr. Kandel.
Retinal axons travel across the brain, reading navigation cues, to find appropriate targets.
Mice can be trained to use spatial cues to navigate a maze that tests their ability to remember specific locations.
Kangaroo-like hopping when spinal cord excitatory interneurons cross the midline to stimulate both sides.
Dr. Kandel illustrates the practice of the now-debunked theory of phrenology.
The average person has no difficulty raising a coffee mug.
Genetically engineered mice lacking proprioceptive sensory axons are not capable of well-coordinated walking.
An interview with Priya Rajasethupathy, an MD/PhD student in Eric Kandel's lab.
A knee-jerk reflex depends on a simple circuit of proprioceptive sensory neurons and spinal motor neurons.
A reduction in the level of sonic hedgehog (SHH) gene expression can lead to cyclopia.
Even without visual feedback, we are able to negotiate an obstacle using spatial memory.
Proprioceptive feedback makes it easy to touch one's thumb to one's fingers without looking.
Dr. Harshad Vishwasrao guides you through a collection of images showing neuronal growth and synaptic formation representative of anatomical changes that occur during learning.
In a giraffe's walk, left and right limbs move alternately, while in a kangaroo's hop, opposing limbs move together.
In the absence of proprioception and visual feedback, it is impossible to touch thumb to fingers accurately.
Even though Clive Wearing cannot remember people or events, his piano-playing skills are intact.
Clive Wearing has lost his ability to remember and lives in a perpetual state of having just awoken.
A person with a disease that kills proprioceptive neurons has severe problems with the simplest of movements.
An interview with Dr. Laskaro Zagoraiou, a post-doctoral student in Thomas Jessell's lab.
What is mind? Can molecular biology help us understand mental function?
The history of localization of function in the brain, and research that led to the understanding of localization of memory.
How a nerve cell gets its identity, sends axons, and makes connections with other cells.
Understanding the neural circuits in the spinal cord that control movement.
The cellular and molecular nature of learning and memory, investigated in simpler sea slugs and more-complex mice.
The lecturers, joined by Dr. Kay Jamison of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Dr. Gerald Fischbach of the Simons Foundation, answer questions concerning autism, manic depression, and other mental illnesses.
Different gaits employed by animals and how the nervous system is able to switch between them.
Measuring neuronal activity, generating action potentials, and recording the firing of individual neurons.
To accompany the lecture series Making Your Mind: Molecules, Motion, and Memory.
A text transcript of the 2008 Holiday Lectures on Science, Making Your Mind: Molecules, Motion, and Memory.
A chapter list to accompany the DVD.
The poster from the 2008 Holiday Lectures on Science, Making Your Mind: Molecules, Motion, and Memory. It illustrates the structure and function of a neuron, including how it transmits electrical and chemical signals.
(This poster is designed to printed at a maximum size of 29.5...