A sample is put on a Virochip microarray, and results are compared to databases of all known viral sequences.
Delivering a single virus to a cell allows the virus to infect the cell, replicate, and give rise to many progeny viruses. These viruses can then infect many neighboring cells.
The geometric structures of viruses are beautiful and can be used, along with genomic information, to identify them.
A visual representation of the U.S. AIDS epidemic from 1981 to 1997. Each dot represents 30 cases.
In this animation, you can see how one S. typhimurium invades an epithelial cell of the intestinal tract, survives the intracellular defense mechanisms of the host cell, and multiplies.
Protease inhibitors prevent maturation of viral proteins inside HIV particles.
How a cell infected by a virus signals cytotoxic T lymphocytes to kill the cell before the virus replicates and spreads.
Bacteria can transfer genetic material, and thus drug resistance, to other bacteria via conjugation.
Dengue virus has sophisticated mechanisms for entering a cell, for replicating its RNA genome, and for translating proteins.
Since the 1960s dengue fever has spread to many countries and total case numbers have exploded.
The dengue virus's outer envelope proteins form symmetrical units and overlay the lipid envelope, capsid, and the RNA genome.
Infection begins when the dengue virus uses receptors on an immune cell's surface to gain entry and release its genome.
Watch this animation to see the molecular tricks that an infectious strain of Escherichia coli uses to infect your gut.
How HIV infects a cell and replicates itself using reverse transcriptase and the host's cellular machinery.
When a malaria-carrying mosquito bites a human host, the malaria parasite enters the bloodstream, multiplies in the liver cells, and is then released back into the bloodstream, where it infects and destroys red blood cells.
A mosquito becomes infected with malaria when it sucks the blood from an infected human. Once inside the mosquito, the parasites reproduce in the gut and accumulate in the salivary glands, ready to infect another human host with the next bite.