Slippage during DNA replication can lead to expanding sections of repeating nucleotides. Watch this animation to see how this problem occurs.
HIV's reverse transcriptase mistakes AZT for thymidine. Once incorporated, AZT stops reverse transcription.
Rapamycin is a small molecule originally isolated from nature. It has antibiotic and immunosuppressive properties. It also allows two proteins which do not normally interact to bind together in the cell, which causes problems in the nutrient-sensing pathway.
Prialt does not block the mammalian motor synapse, but blocks the pain pathway in the spinal cord.
A cancer tumor forms in a bed of healthy cells. The animation goes on to show how the tumor recruits blood vessels and how metastasis occurs.
One technique for discovering small molecules of biological relevance is to expose cultured cells to a variety of small molecules and look for changes in the cells' appearance, behavior or other measurable qualities.
Since the 1960s dengue fever has spread to many countries and total case numbers have exploded.
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is caused by a mutation that leads to an abnormal protein that is always active. The drug Gleevec has a shape that fits into the active site of the abnormal protein and stops its harmful effects.
Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease that affects hemoglobin.
Gleevec is a drug designed to interfere with the stimulation of growth in leukemia cells. This 3D animation shows how this is achieved.
A timeline illustrating the gradual effects of obesity on the body, including diabetes, atherosclerosis, and heart attack.
A 3-D animation that shows how plaques form in a blood vessel, leading to blockage and a heart attack.
How HIV infects a cell and replicates itself using reverse transcriptase and the host's cellular machinery.
When a malaria-carrying mosquito bites a human host, the malaria parasite enters the bloodstream, multiplies in the liver cells, and is then released back into the bloodstream, where it infects and destroys red blood cells.
A patient can both comprehend and articulate language, but cannot verbalize what is a clear idea in her mind.
Why has it been so hard to develop a vaccine against HIV? How are new medicines revolutionizing AIDS treatment? Can AIDS be cured?
The genesis of AIDS, identifying HIV as the virus that causes AIDS, and the modern global epidemic.
The HIV life cycle, and how the virus destroys the immune system's ability to respond to infection.
Treating HIV infection with antiretroviral therapy, and HIV's ability to develop drug resistance.
The search for an effective HIV vaccine, and advances in genomics that may lead to a breakthrough.
Three HIV-positive individuals share their personal experiences about living with HIV.
Dr. Donald Ganem describes how epidemiologists, physicians, and microbiologists work together to identify and study pathogens.
Dr. Brett Finlay explains why bacterial diseases continue to be a major health problem worldwide, causing a third of the world's deaths every year.
Dr. Finlay showcases three types of bacteria to illustrate how molecular biology is allowing researchers to probe the molecular workings of bacterial infections.
Dr. Ganem analyses the complex causes of epidemics—how changes in the environment and in human social behavior can give rise to new infectious diseases.