Since RNA is single-stranded, it can fold upon itself and form structures that are protein-like in both appearance and functionality.
HIV's reverse transcriptase mistakes AZT for thymidine. Once incorporated, AZT stops reverse transcription.
General transcription factors, activators, and repressors interact to regulate the transcription of eukaryotic DNA into RNA.
Once a gene has been transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA), it is edited in a process called splicing. Noncoding regions called introns are removed, leaving protein-coding regions called exons.
The ribosome is a molecular factory that translates the genetic information in RNA into a string of amino acids that becomes a protein. Inside the ribosome, the genetic code of the RNA is read three letters at a time and compared with the corresponding code on a transfer molecule. When a match...
Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries DNA's genetic information to the ribosome, where it is translated into a sequence of amino acids. mRNA is fed into the ribosome, and it is positioned so that it can be read in groups of three letters, known as codons. Each mRNA codon is matched against the transfer...
Listen to past HHMI President Dr. Thomas Cech discussing his Nobel Prize-winning discovery of RNA's catalytic properties.
In four lectures, Nobel laureate Thomas R. Cech, PhD, discusses the ability of RNA to act as more than just an intermediary between DNA and proteins.
Cellular enzymes are catalysts that tame reactions by accelerating them, lending specificity, and regulating their time and place.
Discovery of RNA's catalytic activity led to unexpected spin-offs, including a new scenario for the origin of life.
Studies of RNA catalytic centers have revealed much about their structure and mode of action.
The chromosome ends, or telomeres, are necessary for DNA stability and replication.
RNA interference is an exciting new research tool for shutting down genes. It could also yield new medical treatments.
RNA is an information molecule that can also function as an enzyme. Learn about the many different forms that RNA can take.
Topics include: Gene expression, RNA structure and function, transcription, RNA processing, translation, and post-translational events.
A 3D model of the dengue virus reveals a shape like a soccer ball with an outer coating of glycoproteins.
Fluorescence microscopy reveals bacterial communities in human dental plaque.