In mammals, the controlling clock component that generates a 24-hour rhythm is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), located in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. The SCN produces a signal that can keep the rest of the body on an approximately 24-hour schedule. This animation illustrates...
Neurons in the cortical area 5 are active when a cat is straddling an obstacle.
Electrical and chemical signals are used by neurons to communicate with one another at contact points called synapses.
Long-term memory requires the activation of CREB, turning on specific genes that support new synaptic growth.
Short-term memory relies on serotonin activating a protein kinase to modify existing synaptic strength.
The fetal brain grows enormously during pregnancy, both in terms of its size and the number of neurons it has.
Early LTP (short-term memory) depends on a calcium-dependent protein kinase to strengthen an existing synapse.
A 3-D animation that shows the location of the hypothalamus in a mouse's brain.
Late LTP (long-term memory) involves dopamine activation of CREB to support new synaptic growth.
Illustrates how providing leptin to an obese mouse rapidly rewires its hypothalamus neurons.
Even though Clive Wearing cannot remember people or events, his piano-playing skills are intact.
Clive Wearing has lost his ability to remember and lives in a perpetual state of having just awoken.
What is mind? Can molecular biology help us understand mental function?
The history of localization of function in the brain, and research that led to the understanding of localization of memory.
How a nerve cell gets its identity, sends axons, and makes connections with other cells.
The cellular and molecular nature of learning and memory, investigated in simpler sea slugs and more-complex mice.
The lecturers, joined by Dr. Kay Jamison of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Dr. Gerald Fischbach of the Simons Foundation, answer questions concerning autism, manic depression, and other mental illnesses.
Mutations in key genes can lay waste to the nervous system. By studying large families predisposed to developing these genetic disorders, scientists can identify the responsible altered gene.
Girls with Rett syndrome develop normally for about 18 months and then begin to regress. With the help of affected girls and their families, Dr. Zoghbi and her collaborators searched for the gene responsible for this neurological disorder.
Dr. Friedman shows how leptin rewires neural circuits, and how population studies may identify obesity genes.
Dr. Joseph Takahashi takes us on an exciting journey into a very special region of the brain—the biological clock that governs our physiology and certain behaviors.
To accompany the lecture series Making Your Mind: Molecules, Motion, and Memory.
In the 2013 Holiday Lectures on Science, leading medical researchers explain how advances in genomics are revolutionizing their work, leading to a better understanding of disease and to improved treatments.
The poster for the 2013 Holiday Lectures on Science, Medicine in the Genomic Era, illustrates the difference between germline and somatic cell mutations.
Dr. Walsh is an HHMI investigator whose research focuses on understanding the genes involved in the development and function of the human brain.