Varying concentrations of a signaling molecule activate different transcription factors and determine cell fate.
The growth cone of a neuron avoids repellant molecules and navigates to innervate the appropriate muscle.
Neurons in the cortical area 5 are active when a cat is straddling an obstacle.
Electrical and chemical signals are used by neurons to communicate with one another at contact points called synapses.
Long-term memory requires the activation of CREB, turning on specific genes that support new synaptic growth.
Short-term memory relies on serotonin activating a protein kinase to modify existing synaptic strength.
The fetal brain grows enormously during pregnancy, both in terms of its size and the number of neurons it has.
Early LTP (short-term memory) depends on a calcium-dependent protein kinase to strengthen an existing synapse.
Late LTP (long-term memory) involves dopamine activation of CREB to support new synaptic growth.
Aplysia californica is a marine snail with a simple nervous system suitable for research on learning and memory.
A touch to the Aplysia's siphon causes a gill withdrawal, a simple reflex for studying memory.
A live recording of muscle activity from Dr. Jessell's biceps and triceps muscles.
Even when distracted by food, the cat's brain encodes and retains the location of an obstacle.
Dr. Jessell's leg muscle activation patterns are recorded during walking.
A patient can both comprehend and articulate language, but cannot verbalize what is a clear idea in her mind.
A growth cone contacts a repellant molecule on another axon, collapses, and withdraws.
The growth cones of two neurons sense and interact with one another.
An interview with Dr. Adam Hantman, a post-doctoral student in Thomas Jessell's lab.
An interview with Tessa Hirschfeld-Stoler, a lab technician in Eric Kandel's lab.
In the absence of proprioceptive feedback, some individuals can compensate by using visual feedback.
An interview with Dr. Jessell.
Electrical activity recorded from the leg muscles reveals different patterns of activation during different gaits.
An interview with Dr. Kandel.
Retinal axons travel across the brain, reading navigation cues, to find appropriate targets.
Mice can be trained to use spatial cues to navigate a maze that tests their ability to remember specific locations.