In the stickleback fish, pelvic-fin reduction resulted from changes in the regulatory switch elements of the Pitx1 gene. In the marine ancestor, the Pitx1 gene is activated in the pelvic-fin region during development to generate the fin. In the pelvic-reduced stickleback, the regulatory...
To accompany the lecture series Evolution: Constant Change and Common Threads.
This animation shows how the random deactivation of one of the X chromosomes in a pair can lead to a mozaicism in the expression genes.