Varying concentrations of a signaling molecule activate different transcription factors and determine cell fate.
Illustrates how studying one family's pedigree can reveal an entire history of passing on a genetic disorder such as SCA1.
The growth cone of a neuron avoids repellant molecules and navigates to innervate the appropriate muscle.
Prialt does not block the mammalian motor synapse, but blocks the pain pathway in the spinal cord.
Prialt, a drug derived from cone snail venom, paralyzes fish by blocking calcium channels at a motor synapse.
Neurons in the cortical area 5 are active when a cat is straddling an obstacle.
Multiple cone snail toxins attack different molecules of the nervous system and cause paralysis.
Electrical and chemical signals are used by neurons to communicate with one another at contact points called synapses.
Long-term memory requires the activation of CREB, turning on specific genes that support new synaptic growth.
A dramatic illustration of how hearing happens in the ear.
The fetal brain grows enormously during pregnancy, both in terms of its size and the number of neurons it has.
Early LTP (short-term memory) depends on a calcium-dependent protein kinase to strengthen an existing synapse.
Late LTP (long-term memory) involves dopamine activation of CREB to support new synaptic growth.
Illustrates how providing leptin to an obese mouse rapidly rewires its hypothalamus neurons.
Some cone snail toxins chemically hyperactivate neurons and immobilize prey, much like a Taser.
Aplysia californica is a marine snail with a simple nervous system suitable for research on learning and memory.
A touch to the Aplysia's siphon causes a gill withdrawal, a simple reflex for studying memory.
A live recording of muscle activity from Dr. Jessell's biceps and triceps muscles.
Even when distracted by food, the cat's brain encodes and retains the location of an obstacle.
Dr. Jessell's leg muscle activation patterns are recorded during walking.
A patient can both comprehend and articulate language, but cannot verbalize what is a clear idea in her mind.
A growth cone contacts a repellant molecule on another axon, collapses, and withdraws.
This species of cone snail immobilizes its prey in a split second with lightning-strike cabal toxins.
Larger cone snails produce more venom and are more dangerous to human beings in an accidental stinging.
The growth cones of two neurons sense and interact with one another.