Aplysia californica is a marine snail with a simple nervous system suitable for research on learning and memory.
A touch to the Aplysia's siphon causes a gill withdrawal, a simple reflex for studying memory.
A live recording of muscle activity from Dr. Jessell's biceps and triceps muscles.
Even when distracted by food, the cat's brain encodes and retains the location of an obstacle.
Dr. Jessell's leg muscle activation patterns are recorded during walking.
A patient can both comprehend and articulate language, but cannot verbalize what is a clear idea in her mind.
A growth cone contacts a repellant molecule on another axon, collapses, and withdraws.
This species of cone snail immobilizes its prey in a split second with lightning-strike cabal toxins.
Larger cone snails produce more venom and are more dangerous to human beings in an accidental stinging.
The growth cones of two neurons sense and interact with one another.
In the absence of proprioceptive feedback, some individuals can compensate by using visual feedback.
Electrical activity recorded from the leg muscles reveals different patterns of activation during different gaits.
Retinal axons travel across the brain, reading navigation cues, to find appropriate targets.
Mice can be trained to use spatial cues to navigate a maze that tests their ability to remember specific locations.
Kangaroo-like hopping when spinal cord excitatory interneurons cross the midline to stimulate both sides.
The average person has no difficulty raising a coffee mug.
Genetically engineered mice lacking proprioceptive sensory axons are not capable of well-coordinated walking.
A knee-jerk reflex depends on a simple circuit of proprioceptive sensory neurons and spinal motor neurons.
Dr. Zoghbi demonstrates how mice that have been given the gene responsible for spinocerebellar ataxia 1 (SCA1) are tested on a device called a rotarod to quantify the amount of ataxia present.
A reduction in the level of sonic hedgehog (SHH) gene expression can lead to cyclopia.
Even without visual feedback, we are able to negotiate an obstacle using spatial memory.
Dr. Huda Zoghbi interviews Milan Cloud, a patient who has inherited the neurological disorder spinocerebellar ataxia 1, or SCA1.
Proprioceptive feedback makes it easy to touch one's thumb to one's fingers without looking.
Dr. Jason Biggs of the University of Guam Marine Laboratory discusses the anatomy of cone snails and introduces us to a variety of cone snail species with different tactics to hunt and capture their prey.
Dr. Harshad Vishwasrao guides you through a collection of images showing neuronal growth and synaptic formation representative of anatomical changes that occur during learning.