Slippage during DNA replication can lead to expanding sections of repeating nucleotides. Watch this animation to see how this problem occurs.
Rapamycin is a small molecule originally isolated from nature. It has antibiotic and immunosuppressive properties. It also allows two proteins which do not normally interact to bind together in the cell, which causes problems in the nutrient-sensing pathway.
Prialt does not block the mammalian motor synapse, but blocks the pain pathway in the spinal cord.
A cancer tumor forms in a bed of healthy cells. The animation goes on to show how the tumor recruits blood vessels and how metastasis occurs.
One technique for discovering small molecules of biological relevance is to expose cultured cells to a variety of small molecules and look for changes in the cells' appearance, behavior or other measurable qualities.
Since the 1960s dengue fever has spread to many countries and total case numbers have exploded.
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is caused by a mutation that leads to an abnormal protein that is always active. The drug Gleevec has a shape that fits into the active site of the abnormal protein and stops its harmful effects.
Gleevec is a drug designed to interfere with the stimulation of growth in leukemia cells. This 3D animation shows how this is achieved.
A timeline illustrating the gradual effects of obesity on the body, including diabetes, atherosclerosis, and heart attack.
A 3-D animation that shows how plaques form in a blood vessel, leading to blockage and a heart attack.
When a malaria-carrying mosquito bites a human host, the malaria parasite enters the bloodstream, multiplies in the liver cells, and is then released back into the bloodstream, where it infects and destroys red blood cells.
Zinhle Thabethe describes how antiretroviral therapy has changed her life.
Dr. Vogelstein shows video taken during a colonoscopy and the removal of a polyp.
A patient can both comprehend and articulate language, but cannot verbalize what is a clear idea in her mind.
Using tic tac mints as anti-HIV drug stand-ins, students experience the challenges of adhering to an antiretroviral regimen.
A live demonstration of how a rapid antibody-based HIV test works.
Dr. Michael Gottlieb was the first physician to notice the new disease of AIDS.
Dr. Beatrice Hahn's research has traced the origin of HIV to chimpanzees in Cameroon.
Dr. Rosenthal uses a model of a heart and an artery to describe how blockages lead to heart attack and tissue damage.
In the absence of proprioceptive feedback, some individuals can compensate by using visual feedback.
How a South African hospital is coping with the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its many related healthcare issues.
Using soccer to teach children how to make important life choices and how to avoid HIV infection.
Dr. Zoghbi demonstrates how mice that have been given the gene responsible for spinocerebellar ataxia 1 (SCA1) are tested on a device called a rotarod to quantify the amount of ataxia present.
Dr. Huda Zoghbi interviews Milan Cloud, a patient who has inherited the neurological disorder spinocerebellar ataxia 1, or SCA1.
Why has it been so hard to develop a vaccine against HIV? How are new medicines revolutionizing AIDS treatment? Can AIDS be cured?
The genesis of AIDS, identifying HIV as the virus that causes AIDS, and the modern global epidemic.
The HIV life cycle, and how the virus destroys the immune system's ability to respond to infection.
Treating HIV infection with antiretroviral therapy, and HIV's ability to develop drug resistance.
The search for an effective HIV vaccine, and advances in genomics that may lead to a breakthrough.
Three HIV-positive individuals share their personal experiences about living with HIV.
In four presentations, Donald E. Ganem, MD, and B. Brett Finlay, PhD, discuss the latest advances in understanding how pathogens invade the body and how this knowledge is leading to the development of new therapies. They also explain how new infectious diseases are recognized and how epidemics...
Dr. Donald Ganem describes how epidemiologists, physicians, and microbiologists work together to identify and study pathogens.
Dr. Brett Finlay explains why bacterial diseases continue to be a major health problem worldwide, causing a third of the world's deaths every year.
Dr. Finlay showcases three types of bacteria to illustrate how molecular biology is allowing researchers to probe the molecular workings of bacterial infections.
Dr. Ganem analyses the complex causes of epidemics—how changes in the environment and in human social behavior can give rise to new infectious diseases.
The lecturers, joined by Dr. Kay Jamison of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Dr. Gerald Fischbach of the Simons Foundation, answer questions concerning autism, manic depression, and other mental illnesses.
As part of the 2003 Holiday Lectures on Science, Dr. Bert Vogelstein and Dr. Huda Y. Zoghbi discuss how their patients have led to a deeper understanding of the genetic and molecular bases of neurological disorders and cancer. Thanks to these patients, researchers can now apply the knowledge...
Although there are numerous kinds of cancer, all stem from alterations that allow cell division to outstrip cell demise.
The identification of hundreds of genes involved in the formation and spread of cancer is leading to promising new methods for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.
Mutations in key genes can lay waste to the nervous system. By studying large families predisposed to developing these genetic disorders, scientists can identify the responsible altered gene.
Girls with Rett syndrome develop normally for about 18 months and then begin to regress. With the help of affected girls and their families, Dr. Zoghbi and her collaborators searched for the gene responsible for this neurological disorder.
In four lectures, Richard P. Lifton, MD, PhD, and Christine E. Seidman, MD, discuss their groundbreaking work in using genetic and molecular approaches to understand cardiovascular diseases.
The heart acts as a dual pump, sending oxygen-depleted blood to the lungs to be reinvigorated and pumping oxygen-rich blood to vital organs throughout the body.
The discovery of DNA as the basis of heredity led to an explosive growth of knowledge about the human genome and allowed the identification of genes that predispose people to different diseases.
Although heart disease typically occurs after middle age, seemingly fit and healthy young individuals can die suddenly from unrecognized heart disease.
Molecular genetic approaches have identified genes that, when mutated, cause either increased or decreased blood pressure.
West Nile virus infects mosquitoes, birds, and people—with very different consequences.
Small molecules are chemicals that can interact with proteins to affect their functions. Learn about the structure and biological functions of various small molecules like sugar and caffeine.
Problems associated with adherence to antiviral drugs, and a student activity that mimics adherence to a multi-drug regimen.
An exploration of current and future therapies.
An advanced lesson that describes the role of mutations in the birth and death of genes. It includes background information, examples, video clips, and animations.
The following classroom-ready resources complement The Making of the Fittest: Natural Selection in Humans, which describes the connection between malaria and sickle cell anemia—one of the best-understood examples of natural selection in humans.
A worksheet designed to actively engage students as they watch the film. Students are asked to answer questions pertaining to the information provided in the film.
To accompany the lecture series Potent Biology: Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regeneration.
To accompany the lecture series Learning from Patients: The Science of Medicine.
Topics include: Gene regulation mechanisms and examples, gene regulation and human disease, and RNA interference.
A lesson that requires students to read detailed scientific passages and explain how an understanding of specific icefish adaptations might lead to a treatment or cure for human disorders, such as osteoporosis and anemia.
A text transcript of the 2003 Holiday Lectures on Science, Learning From Patients: The Science of Medicine.
A chapter list to accompany the DVD.
In the 2013 Holiday Lectures on Science, leading medical researchers explain how advances in genomics are revolutionizing their work, leading to a better understanding of disease and to improved treatments.
A brochure from the 2013 Holiday Lectures on Science.
An intricate three-dimensional network of blood vessels nourishes the heart.
Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have led to a better understanding of the many genes that play a role in brain development.
Understanding that cancer is caused by mutations in genes that regulate cell proliferation has led to the development of targeted drug therapies.
Over the past decade, the application of advanced DNA sequencing techniques has greatly increased our understanding of the genetic basis of autism.
Genetic data from a large number of tumor types reveal commonly mutated genes and uncover connections between different types of cancer.
A 3D model of the dengue virus reveals a shape like a soccer ball with an outer coating of glycoproteins.
This Click and Learn describes how understanding the structure of the BCR-ABL kinase led to the development of an effective treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia.
Explore the phases, checkpoints, and protein regulators of the cell cycle in this highly interactive Click and Learn and find out how mutated versions of these proteins can lead to the development of cancer.
Fat is made up of spherical plump cells supplied by a network of blood vessels.
A germ-spreading sneeze unleashes a shower of large liquid droplets and a moist gas cloud of smaller ones.
A freshwater snail infected with thousands of blood flukes will release the disease-causing parasites into the water where they can infect humans.
The measles virus can spread easily among people who have no immunity against it, as the current outbreak shows.
The muscles of the mouse’s heart contract about 600 times per minute, or a billion times in its three-year lifespan.
The surface cells of tadpole embryos have cilia that move the water around them.
Dr. Zoghbi introduces the topic of Rett syndrome by showing how development usually progresses in a young girl. She then shows an excerpt from ...
Dr. Zoghbi shows how a mouse that has been given the gene responsible for Rett syndrome exhibits some of the same neurological symptoms as human Rett patients.
How HIV infects a cell and replicates itself using reverse transcriptase and the host's cellular machinery.
HIV's reverse transcriptase mistakes AZT for thymidine. Once incorporated, AZT stops reverse transcription.
Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease that affects hemoglobin.
Leaf-cutter ants practice fungus agriculture to provide the ant colony with a steady source of food.
An intricate system of tubes in the kidney filters out waste products from the blood.